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PsychTest2-x

Psych Test Two

TermDefinition
Learning Process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as result of past experence
Classical Conditioning Basic learning process that involves repeatedly paring a neutral stimulus with a response-producing stimulus until the neutral stimulus elicits the same responce
Operant Conditioning Basic learning process that involves changing the probability that a response will be repeated by manipulating the consequences of that responce
Spontaneous Recovery The reappearance if previously extinguished conditioned response after a period of time without exposure to stimulus
Extinction The gradual weakening and apparent disappearence of of conditioned behavior
Shaping Operant conditioning process of selectively reinforcing successively closer approximations of a goal behavior until the goal behavior is displayed
Reinforcer Stimulus or event following a response that increases the chance of that response being repeated
Generalization process within operant and classical conditioning, where a conditioned response starts occurring in response to the presentation of other, similar stimuli, not just the conditioned stimulus.
Primary Reinforcers Reinforcement that doesn't have to be learned as reinforcement. i.e.: A child receiving candy
Secondary Reinforcers secondary reinforcers are reinforcing only after the organism has been conditioned to find it reinforcing.
Learned Helplessness behave helplessly, failing to respond even though there are opportunities for it to help itself by avoiding unpleasant circumstances or by gaining positive rewards
Memory Consolidation Memory being stored permanently within the brain
Retrevial process in which information in your memory can be recalled
Rehearsal repeating information over and over to keep it in temporary memory
Short Term Memory ("primary" or "active" memory) capacity for holding a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time. The duration of short-term memory is believed to be in the order of seconds
Declarative Memory (explicit memory) memories which can be consciously recalled such as facts and knowledge
Non-declarative Memory (procedural memory) unconscious memories such as skills
Algorithm An algorithm is a set of instructions for solving a problem or completing a process, often used in math. The steps in an algorithm are very precise and well-defined.
Gardner's Types of Intelligence differentiates intelligence into specific (primarily sensory) "modalities", rather than seeing it as dominated by a single general ability
Standardization of Psychological Tests Consistency and objectivity of how tests are administered and scored. In order to compare one person to another on a test, it is important that they take the test under the same conditions and the same scoring procedure is applied to both
Robert Rescorla Rescorla–Wagner model: theorized to learn from the discrepancy between what is expected to happen and what actually happens. This is a trial-level model in which each stimulus is either present or not present at some point in the trial.
Variable Ratio operant conditioning reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is given after an unpredictable (variable) number of responses are made by the organism. AVERAGE
Punishment any stimulus that represses a behavior
Insight When the solution to a problem comes to you in an all-of-a-sudden manner
Cognitive Maps cognitive map is a mental representation of the layout of one's environment
Modeling form of learning where individuals ascertain how to act or perform by observing another individual
Sensory Memory memory system which is the initial contact for stimuli. Sensory memory is only capable of retaining information for a very short period of time
Long Term Memory the unlimited capacity memory store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time. By saying "lengthy periods of time" we mean that it is possible for memories in LTM to remain there for an entire lifetime
Elaborative Rehearsal memory technique that involves thinking about the meaning of the term to be remembered
Inductive Reasoning process of making a general assumption based upon observed cases
Deductive Reasoning form of reasoning where two or more facts or assumptions are applied to a specific event
Concepts mental categories used to organize events and objects
Convergent Thinking process (a mode of critical thinking) in which a person attempts to find a single, correct answer to a problem
Divergent Thinking a person generates many unique, creative responses to a single question or problem.
Law of Effect deals with what is called “stimulus-response” reaction that is exhibited by living creatures. Stimulus-response means exhibiting a reaction to some form of reward
Positive Reinforcment stimulus which increases the frequency of a particular behavior using pleasant rewards
Negative Reinforcement occurrence of a behavior is increased by removing an unpleasant stimulus
Functional Fixedness People are often very limited in the ways they think about objects, concepts, and people
Mental Set a tendency to approach situations the same way because that way worked in the past
Atkinson-Shiffrin Model Model of memory displaying the movement of memory from sensory, short term, and long term memory
Forgetting Loss or failure of memory
Encoding Failure a failure to store sufficient information to form a useful memory
Variable Interval reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is given to a response after specific amount of time has passed (an unpredictable amount of time), but this amount of time is on a changing/variable schedule. AVERAGE
Fixed Ratio reinforcement schedule, an organism must make a certain number of operant responses in order to receive reinforcement
Fixed Interval operant conditioning reinforcement schedule, an organism must wait for a specific amount of time and then make the operant response in order to receive reinforcement
Created by: obsessi