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Second Psychology Test Flashcards

Sensaton The process of receiving stimulus energies from the environment
Transduction The process of transforming physical energy into electrochemical energy
Absolute Threshold The minimum amount of stimulus energy that a person can detect
Sensory Adaptation A change in the responsiveness of the sensory system based on the average level of surrounding stimulation
Rods The receptors in the retina that are sensitive to light but are not very useful for color vision
Cones The receptors in the retina that process information about color
Blind Spot A small area where the optic nerve leads to the brain, the normal blind spot in your eye
Vestibular Sense A sensory system located in structures of the inner ear that registers the orientation of the head
Perceptual Constancy Recognition that objects are constant and unchanging even though sensory input about them in changing
The process of reeiving information from the outside world is ________ Sensation
The point at which you can detect the presence of a stimulus is the ______________ Absolute Threshold
The volume of the TV needs to be 6 in order for you to hear it. a volume of 6 is the___________ Absolute Threshold
You work at a hog lot and no longer notice the sell. This is called ____________ Sensory Adaptation
The vision receptor cells that detect color are the ____________ Cones
Even from a distance of 5 miles, we know that a semi truck is big because of the principle of __________ Perceptual Constancy
REM Sleep Rapid Eye Movement sleep, where dreaming occurs
Sleep Apnea Abnormally low breathing and/or stopping breathing while sleeping
Insomnia Inability to fall asleep and/or stay asleep
Dreams When we sleep and dream, our level of awareness is lower than when w daydream, but sleep and dreams are regarded as low levels of consciousness
Stimulants Stimulants are psychoactive drugs which induce temporary improvements in either mental or physical function or both.
Stage 1 Sleep Light sleep lasting up to 10 minutes, includes theta waves
Stage 2 Sleep Deeper sleep characterized by occasional sleep spindles
Stage 3 Sleep Progressively more muscle relaxation and emergence of delta waves and lasts up to 40 minutes
Stage 4 Sleep Deep sleep when sleeper is difficult to rouse
Depressants Psychoactive drugs that slow down mental and physical activity
Inhalants A solvent or other material producing vapor inhaled by drug abusers.
Hallucinogens Psychoactive drugs that modify a person's perceptual experiences and produce visual images that are not real
Dependence The state of relying on or being controlled by someone or something else.
Tolerance The need to take increasing amounts of a drug to produce the same effect
Withdrawal Discontinuation of the use of an addictive substance.
Dreaming occurs during ________ REM Sleep
Dreaming most often involves the sense of ___________ Sight
Drug tolerance and withdrawal are signs of ______ Dependence
LSD is an example of a/an ________ Hallucinogen
Insomnia and narcolepsy are two types of ________ Sleep disorders
A sleep disorder that often includes loudsnorng and breathing problems is ____________ Sleep Apnea
Drugs that increase alertness and energy level are reffered to as _________ Stimulants
Associative Learning Learning in which a conncion, or an association, is made between two events
Classical Conditioning Learning by which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response
Unconditioned Stimulus A stimulus that produces a response without prior learning
Unconditioned Response A unlearned response that is automatically elicited by an unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus A previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits the conditioned respone after being associated with the unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Response The learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after the pairing of a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus
Extinction The weakening of he conditioned response in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus
Counterconditioning A classical conditioning procedure for weakening a conditioned response by associating the fear-provoking stimulus with a new response that is incompatible with the fear
Operant Conditioning A form of associative learning in which the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behavior's occurrence
Positive Reinforcement Punishment Following a behavior with a rewarding stimulus to increase the frequency of the behavior
In Pavlov's studies of classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus was ____________ Dog started drooling when the bell rang
"If you finish your homework, you can watch TV" is an example of __________ Positive reinforcement punishment
We know that a good consequece is___________ if the behavior decreases Working
Money, letter grades and high fives are examples of _______ reinforcers Positive
Encoding The process by which information gets into memory storage
Storage Retention of information over time and the representation of information in memory
Retrieval Retaining past information from your memory storage
Short-term memory A limited-capacity memory system in which information is retained for only as long as 30 seconds unless strategies are used to retain it longer
Long-term memory A relatively permanent type of memory that stores huge amounts of information for a long time
Explicit memory The conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts or events and, at least in humans, information that can be verbally communicated
Semantic memory A person's knowledge about the world
Episodic memory The retention of information about where, when, and what of life's happenings
Implicit memory Memory in which behavior is affcted by prior experiences without that experience being consciously recollected
Procedural memory Memory for skills
Schemas Preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people to organize and interpret informaton
Repressed Memories a condition of memory loss in which memories have either been dissociated from awareness or repressed by motivated forgetting. These memories are blocked out due to their painful or traumatic nature.
"Who wrote Hamlet?" us an example of a test of ______ memory Explicit Memory
Riding a bike is an example of __________ memory Implicit memory
We can keep items in our short term memory for up to __________ seconds 30 seconds
"What I did on my fourth grade field trip" is an example of ___________ memory Long-term memory
Created by: AndreaPost
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