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Mana 3330 test 2

terms and quizes for chapter 4-6

TermDefinition
What systems helps you with making a decision about a non-structured problem? Decision support system
What systems analyzes spatial information? Geographical information system
What systems mimics human thinking? Artificial intelligence
What AI system provides a diagnosis to a specific problem? Expert system
What AI system finds and identifies patterns; for instance; in the words you use? Neural network
Generally, AI systems analyze imprecise and subjective information. This information is called _____. Fuzzy logic
What AI system will work for you to find information on the internet? Genetic algorithm
What type of Intelligent Agent will monitor systems and report back to you when there is a problem? Predictive agent
What type of Intelligent Agent can play an Internet game on your behalf? User agent
What type of commerce is enabled by technology? E-commerce
What type of commerce occurs when a business sells its products over the Internet to other businesses? B2B
What is term used when the government employs technology to deal with citizens, businesses, and other government agencies? E-government
What term refers to the small web page that opens automatically with an ad when you visit some web sites? Pop-up ad
When two companies are linked together by computers and they send business transactions through these computers, they are probably using _____. Electronic data interchange
What type of technology scrambles the contents of files sent via the Internet? Encryption
What type of Web technology creates a secure and private connection between two computers? Secure socket layers
What term refers to your ability to connect to the internet and your company from a wireless device? Mobile computing
What age group was born after the digital revolution? Digital natives
What is the structured approach called for developing software and information systems? Systems development life cycle
Who is the person who typically manages the software development project? Project manager
In which phase of the software design and development project would you try to understand the proposed project? Analysis phase
In which phase of the software design and development project would you build a blueprint of the proposed system? Development phase
In which phase of the software design and development project would you take the newly built system and place in operations? Implementation phase
In which phase of the software design and development project would you fix errors in the new built and operational system? Maintenance phase
What term refers to the fast-paced building or construction of a software prototype? Rapid application development (RAD)
What type of software design and development methodology does Microsoft Corporation employ? Extreme programming
What term refers to the end user developing software without the assistance of IT? Selfsourcing
_______ (find what to fix): Find or recognize a problem, need, or opportunity (also called the diagnostic phase of decision-making) Intelligence
. The ______ phase involves detecting and interpreting signs that indicate a situation, which needs your attention. intelligence
______ or (find fixes): Consider possible ways of solving the problem, filling the need, or taking advantage of the opportunity. Design
_____ or (pick a fix): Examine and weigh the merits of each solution, estimate the consequences of each, and choose the best one (which may be to do nothing at all). Choice
The _____ phase of decision making-it's the stage at which a course of action is prescribed. Prescriptive
_______ or (apply the fix): Carry out the chosen solution, monitor the results, and make adjustments as necessary Implementation
_______ is making a choice that meets your needs and is satisfactory without necessarily being the best possible choice available Satisficing
a ______ decision, which involves processing a certain kind of information in a specified way so that you will always get the right answer. structured
A _______ decision is one for which there may be several "right" answers, and there is no precise way to get a right answer. nonstructured
A _______ decision is one that happens repeatedly, and often periodically, whether weekly, monthly, quarterly, or yearly. recurring
A_______ , or ad hoc decision is one that you make infrequently (perhaps only once), and you may even have different criteria for determining the best solution each time. nonrecurring
A ________ is a highly flexible and interactive IT system that is designed to support decision making when the situation includes nonstructured elements decision support system (DSS)
The ________ component allows you to communicate with the DSS it is the part of the system you see; through it you enter information, commands, and models. user interface management
The ________ component of a DSS performs the functions of storing and maintaining information and also that of giving you access to information you want your DSS to use data management
_______ information: design your DSS to access information directly from your company's databases, data warehouses, and a host of specialized systems such as CRM and SCM. Organizational
Some decisions require input from external sources of Information would be known as _____ External Information:
Incorporating your own insights and experience your personal information-into your DSS uses _____ Personal information
The _______component consists of a wide variety of statistical and analytical tools, techniques, and models model management
A _______ is a decision support system designed specifically to analyze spatial information geographic Information system (GIS)
_____ information is any information that can be shown in map form, such as roads, the distribution of populations, and even the shortest driving route from beginning location to destination. Spatial
When businesses use GIS software to generate maps showing information of interest, we call it_______ . business geography
______ and ______-the heart of every organization and any analytics initiative. These help gather, store, and organize a wealth of information from which business intelligence can be derived. Databases and DBMSs
________tools-similar to QBE tools, SQL, and report generators in the typical database environment Query-and-reporting
________tools-slice-and-dice techniques that allow you to view multidimensional information from different perspectives Multidimensional analysis (MDA)
________display key information gathered from several sources on a computer screen in a format tailored to the needs and wants of an individual knowledge worker Digital dashboards
_______tools-help you apply various mathematical models to information to discover new information Statistical
_______ are decision support systems designed specifically to analyze spatial information Geographic information systems
_______like predictive analytics and text analytics-these have broad application to all industries and a variety of business domains Specialized analytics
______ is the science of making machines imitate human thinking and behavior Artificial intelligence
_______Modeling-is used for example, a grocery store may find that one purchase, say, peanut butter, is mostly done in conjunction with another product, like jelly Association or Dependency
________groups of entities (like customers) that are in some way or another "similar," without using any a priori and known structures Clustering-discovering
_______-also known as prediction (although the two are not the same). Here, you attempt to evaluate historical, known data to derive structures and inferences that can be applied to newly gathered or perhaps future data Classification
_______-although this is a statistical term, it is not solely executed using regression analysis. The goal here is to find corollary and often causal relationships between sets of data Regression
_______-this is the most basic, yet often the most powerful, form of data mining. Summarization
______ uses Sums, averages, standard deviations, histograms, frequency distributions, and many other forms of descriptive statistics can be very revealing, often eliminating the need to perfonrm any further data mining. Summarization
________is a highly computational data-mining technology that uses information and business intelligence to build a predictive model for a given business application Predictive analytics
A _______ goal is the question you want addressed by the predictive analytics model. prediction
A prediction _______ is a specific measurable value based on an attribute of the entity under consideration. indicator
______ is a process of using statistical, artificial intelligence, and linguistic techniques to convert information content in textual sources-like surveys, e-mails, blogs, and social media-into structured information. Text analytics
______ -the study of word frequency distributions Lexical analysis
Named _____ recognition-the identification of names for people, places, and things entity
_______ is the process of determining the specific meaning of a named entity recognition Disambiguation
______ is the handling of differing noun phrases that refer to the same object Coreference
______ analysis is the discerning subjective business intelligence such as mood, opinion, and emotion Sentiment
_______the analysis of data related to the Internet, often focusing on optimizing Web page usage Web analytics
An important subset of Web analytics is search engine _______ (SEO), improving the visibility of a Web site through the use of tags and key terms found by search engines optimization
_______is the analysis of human resource or talent management data for such purposes as work-force capacity planning, training and development, and performance appraisal HR analytics
______ analytics is the analysis of marketing-related data to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of marketing efforts including product placement, marketing mix, and customer identification and classification Marketing
______ is the analysis of CRM data to improve functions such as sales force automation and customer service and support. CRM analytics
______analytics is the analysis of data related to social media use, Social media
______ is used mainly by customers or competitors, to help an organization better understand the interaction dynamics of itself with its customers and also to help an organization scan social media for competitive intelligence. Social media
______analytics -the analysis of data related to the use of mobile devices by customers and employees Mobile
_______ is the science of making machines imitate human thinking and behavior. Artificial intelligence (AI)
The AI systems that businesses use most classified into the four major categories:_____, _____, _____, _____, Expert systems, Neural networks (and fuzzy logic), Genetic algorithms ,Agent-based technologies
An ______system also called a knowledge-based system, is an artificial intelligence system that applies reasoning capabilities to reach a conclusion expert
Expert systems are excellent for ______and _____problems. Diagnostic, and prescriptive
Diagnostic problems are those requiring an answer to the question, "_____?" and correspond to the intelligence phase of decision making. What's wrong?
Expert systems are excellent for diagnostic and ______ problems prescriptive
Prescriptive problems are those that require an answer to the question, “_______?" and correspond to the choice phase of decision making. What to do?
An expert system is usually built for a specific application area called a _____ ie: accounting, in medicine, in HR,in forestry management domain
A ______(often called an artificial neural network or ANN) is an artificial intelligence system that is capable of finding and differentiating patterns neural network
______ are useful in a variety of situations. i.e., bomb detection systems in U.S. airports use neural networks that sense trace elements in the air that may indicate the presence of explosives Neural networks
______ networks are most useful for identification, classification, and prediction when a vast amount of information is available Neural
By examining hundreds, or even thousands of examples, a ______ network. detects important relationships and patterns in the information. neural
______ is a mathematical method of handling imprecise or subjective information Fuzzy logic
Fuzzy logic is also very good at________, the ability to specifically identify a named entity recognition based on surrounding text disambiguation
A _______is an artificial intelligence system that mimics the evolutionary, survival-of-the-fittest process to generate increasingly better solutions to a problem genetic algorithm
An _______ technology, or a software agent, is a small piece of software that acts on your behalf (or on behalf of another piece of software) performing tasks assigned to it. agent-based
The five main types of agent-based technologies are: Autonomous, distributed, mobile, intelligent, and multi, agents
The four types of intelligent agents include: Information, Monitoring and-surveillance, User (personal agents)
________agents incorporate some form of AI like reasoning and learning to assist you, or act on your behalf, in performing repetitive computer related tasks Intelligent
______agents are intelligent agents that search for information of some kind and bring it back Information
The best known Information agents are ______agents (also known as Shopping agents), agents on a Web site that help you, the customer, find products and services you need. buyer
________ agents are intelligent agents that constantly observe and report on some entity of interest, a network, or manufacturing equipment Monitoring and-surveillance
______ or (personal agents) are intelligent agents that take action on your behalf User agents
_____ agents are used for things such as sorting your e-mail by priority, dumping unsolicited e-mail into your spam folder, and playing computer games as your opponent. User agents
A ______ agent operates in a data warehouse discovering information data-mining
The concept of learning from ecosystems and adapting their characteristics to human and organizational situations is called biomimicry
_____ or (collective) intelligence is the collective behavior of groups of simple agents that are capable of devising solutions to problems as they arise, eventually leading to coherent global patterns Swarm
A _______is a highly flexible and interactive IT system that is designed to support decision making when the situation includes nonstructured elements decision support system (DSS)
A ________is a decision support system designed specifically to analyze spatial information. So, they both are designed to support decision-making efforts geographic information system (GIS)
_______is a highly computational data-mining technology that uses information and business intelligence to build a predictive model for a given business application predictive analytics
Text analytics is a process of using______, _______, and _______to convert information content in textual sources-like surveys, e-mails, blogs, and social media-into structured information statistical, artificial intelligence, linguistic techniques
Text analytics focuses on____________, that is, understanding what is being said (or written) and converting that language into a structured data format more suitable for processing by a computer natural language processing
An expert system, also called a___________, is an artificial intelligence system that applies reasoning capabilities to reach a conclusion knowledge-based system
Expert systems are good for diagnostic (what's wrong) and prescriptive problems are______ (what to do)
A neural network (also called an artificial network or ANN) is an artificial intelligence system that is capable of _____and _____patterns finding and differentiating
Neural networks are most useful for_______, ______, and ______when a vast amount of information is available identification, classification, prediction
A genetic algorithm is an artificial intelligence system that mimics the evolutionary, survival-of-the-fittest process to generate increasingly _________to a problem better solutions
A data-mining agent operates in a ________discovering new information data warehouse
A data-mining agent is considered to be an intelligent agent because it incorporates the use of various ________techniques. artificial intelligence
Multi-agent systems are groups of intelligent agents that have the ability to work _______but must also work ________in order to achieve their assigned task. Independently, with each other
________is commerce, but it is commerce accelerated and enhanced by IT, in particular the Internet Electronic commerce (e-commerce)
A ________is a formal business plan that outlines key business issues such as customer, marketing strategies, operations strategies, and projected targets for income statement and balance sheet items. path-to-profitability (P2P)
The major error that most dot-com businesses made in the late 1990s-and they are no longer in existence today-is that they never developed a clear ____ path-to-profitability.
Business to Government (B2G) e-commerce-occurs when a business sells products and services to a ______entity government
Consumer to ______(C2G) e-commerce-occurs when an individual sells products and services to a government entity Government
______to Business (G2B} e-commerce-occurs when a government entity sells products and services to businesses Government
Government to _______(G2C) e- commerce -refers to the electronic commerce activities performed between a government and its citizens or consumers Consumer
Government to Government (G2G) e- commerce -refers to the _______activities performed within a nation's government or between two more nations' governments electronic commerce
Business-to-Business (B2B) e-commerce occurs when a business sells products and services to customers who are primarily____ other businesses.
Business to ______(B2C) e-commerce occurs when a business sell products and services to customers who are primarily individuals Consumer
Consumer to Business (C2B) e-commerce occurs when an _______sells products and services to a business individual
______programs are an example of the C2B e-commerce business model Affiliate
. Using ______ type of relationship with Amazon, you can post links on your personal Web site to Amazon for products and services. Affiliate
Consumer to Consumer (C2C) e-commerce occurs when an individual sells products and services to______ another individual
Three e-commerce critical success factors are: (1) Understand your business and your customers; (2) Find and establish relationships with customers; (3) Move money easily and securely
_______merchandise is typically lower priced but something they often need, usually frequently convenience
______merchandise might be such things as home stereo systems, computers, name-brand clothing, furniture, and the like specialty
_____ merchandise, to your customers, is the same regardless of where they purchase it, and it is similar to convenience items in that respect Commoditylike
Mass _______ is the ability of an organization to give its customers the opportunity to tailor its product or service to the customer's specifications customization
_______ are materials (also called indirect materials) that are necessary for running a modern corporation, but do not relate to the company's primary business activities maintenance, repair, and operations (MRO)
________include everything from ballpoint pens to three-ring binders, repair parts for equipment, and lubricating oils MRO materials
________ is the combining of purchase requests from multiple buyers into a single large order, which justifies a discount from the business Demand aggregation
______materials are materials that are used in production in a manufacturing company or are placed on the shelf for sale in a retail environment Direct
opposed to MRO materials are, _____materials which relate to a company's primary business activities direct
A _____auction is the process in which a buyer posts its interest in buying goods and sellers compete reverse
Reverse auctions may include details of ______of items, _______, and ______timing, and sellers compete for the business by submitting successively lower bids until there is only one seller left. a certain quantity, specification, delivery
An _______ is an interactive business providing a central market space where multiple buyers and suppliers can engage in e-commerce or other business activities electronic marketplace
A ______e-marketplace is an electronic marketplace that connects buyers and sellers across many industries, primarily for MRO materials commerce horizontal
A ______ e-marketplace is an electronic marketplace that connects buyers and sellers in a given industry (e.g., oil and gas, textiles, and retail). vertical
A _______ is an arrangement made between two e-commerce sites that directs viewers from one site to the other Affiliate program
A______ is a mechanism for sending money from your checking or savings account to another person or organization Electronic check
A____ is the direct computer-to-computer transfer of transaction information contained in standard business documents, such as invoices and purchase orders, in a standard format Electronic data interchange (EDI)
_______ is-the set of marketing tools that your organization will use to pursue its marketing objectives in reaching and attracting potential customers marketing mix
______ describes electronic commerce conducted over a wireless device such as a smartphone, laptop, or tablet PC Mobile commerce (m-commerce or wireless commerce)
______ is a broad general term describing your ability to use technology to wirelessly connect to and use centrally located information and/or application software Mobile computing
A_____ is a count of the number of people who visit one site, click on an ad, and are taken to the site of the advertiser. Click-through
A______ is the percentage of potential customers who visit your site who actually buy something Conversion rate
_____ is when businesses provide enabling technologies that allow people (i.e., crowds}-instead of designated paid employees-to create, modify, and oversee the development of a product or service Crowdsourcing
A______ is both software and information-the software provides security for the transaction and the information includes payment information (for example, the credit card number and expiration date) and delivery information Digital wallet
A____ system that sends bills (usually to end consumers) over the Internet and provides an easy-to-use mechanism (such as clicking on a button) to pay for them if the amount looks correct ie checkfree Electronic Bill Presentment and Payment {EBPP)
______ scrambles the contents of a file so that you can't read it without having the right decryption key. Encryption
A_______ an Internet-based company that makes it easy for one person to pay another person or organization over the Internet ie Paypal Financial cybermediary
_______ the electronic process used primarily within the B2B e-commerce model for the payment for purchases Financial EDI or (financial electronic data interchange)
______ actually refers to the tail of a sales curve Long Tail
__________ a wireless transmission technology developed primarily for mobile phones to support mobile commerce {m-commerce) Near field communication {NFC)
____________ (often called banner ads) are small advertisements that appear on other sites Online ads
A ______ad is a form of a pop-up ad that you do not see until you close your current browser window pop-under ad
A ______ ad is a small Web page containing an advertisement that appears on your screen outside the current Web site loaded into your browser pop-up
_____ an encryption system that uses two keys: a public key that everyone can have and a private key for only the recipient Public key encryption (PKE)
______ is a transmission security method that ensures transactions are legitimate as well as secure. Secure Electronic Transaction (SET)
______ creates a secure and private connection between a Web client computer and a Web server computer Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
______ plastic card the size of a credit card that contains an embedded chip on which digital information can be stored and updated Smart card
A_____ is a B2B service that offers information-sharing intermediary services between organizations based on various standards regarding the format of the information and how it will be sent and received Value-added network (VAN)
________ encourages users of a product or service supplied by a B2C e-commerce business to encourage friends to join in as well Viral marketing
Using the _______ is real mass customization, and also goes by the terms slivercasting (as opposed to broadcasting) and massclusivity (a combination of mass production and exclusivity). Long Tail
What term refers to an organization's ability to tailor its products and services to its customers? Mass customization
Created by: romoore245