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HLT250 Pharm

Chapters 18-24 Cardiotonics,Misc Inotropic,Antiarrhythmic,Antianginal&Perp etc

Digoxin is the most commonly used cardiotonic drug True or false? True
What is the conduction system of the heart? The conduction system is Specialized in nerve fibers consisting of: -SA node. -AVnode. - Bundle of His. - Branches of Purkinje
Cardiotonic's are contraindicated in patients with? Ventricular failure. This is because cardiotonics treat heart failure and atrial fibrillation
Cardiac muscle has properties of both nerve and muscle. True or false? True
What is the point at which positive ions on the outside and negative ions on the inside of the cell membrane are at equilibrium? Polarization
Calcium channel blockers are used to stop anginal pain once it has occurred. True or false? False. This is because calcium channel blockers "prevents" anginal attacks and Nitrates "treat" anginal attacks.
Vasodilating drugs relax the smooth muscle layer of arterial blood vessels True or false? True
Adverse reactions from peripheral vasodilating drugs are all the same. True or false? False. This is because the adverse reactions associated with these drugs are variable, meaning changable or inconsistent.
Not all antihypertensive drugs work equally well in any given patient. True or false? True. This is because Although many antihypertensive drugs are available not all drugs may work equally well in any given patient. Healthcare providers may Find it necessary to prescribe a different antihypertensive drugs When there is no response.
After age 65 who would most likely have hypertension? African American women
A patient is considered to have stage I hypertension if the systolic blood pressure is ______ 140-159
Fibric acid derivatives have antihyperlipidemic effects. True or false? True. This is because fibric acid derivatives is an antihyperlipidemic drug
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors can be used during pregnancy. True or false? False. This is because they are contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation
What are the risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis? Hyperlipidemia (elevated serum cholesterol and LDL levels, Family history of early heart disease, Smoking, Hypertension, Age, low HDL levels, obesity, and diabetes.
Which anti-hyperlipidemic drug is known as "stains?" HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (3-hydroxy 3-methyglutaryl coenzyme A)
What is Warfarin used for? Prevention (prophylaxis) &treatment of deep vein thrombosis. Prevention & treatment of atrial fibrillation w/embolization.Prevention &treatment of pulmonary embolism.Treatment of myocardial infraction.Prevention of thrombosis formation aftr valve replacmt
When can bleeding occur during therapy with Warfarin? Bleeding can occur at any time during treatment
What is required for the manufacture of red blood cells in the bone marrow? Folic acid (Folic acid deficiency results in "megaloblastic anemia")
Intrinsic factor is necessary for the absorption of vitamins B 12 in the intestines. True or false? True. This is because the intrinsic factor is a substance produced by cells in the stomach that is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the intestines
Define antiarrhythmic drugs Drugs used to treat cardiac arrhythmias (the disturbance or irregular heart rate or rhythm or both)
Define Cardiotonics Drugs used to improve the efficiency and contraction of the heart muscle (myocardium), Leading to improved blood flow to all tissues of the body. Typically used to treat "congestive Heart failure" (CHF)
Define antianginal drugs Drugs that relieve chest pain or pressure by dilating the coronary arteries and increasing the blood supply to the myocardium.
2 drug classes of antianginal drugs Nitrates "treat" angina Calcium channel blockers "prevent" angina (slow channel blockers)
Define Peripheral vasodilating drugs Drugs given for disorders that affect blood vessels of the extremities. These drugs are also used to treat "Raynaud phenomenon," known as peripheral vascular disease
Type of drug used to treat hypertension "anithyertensives" Vasodilating drugs B-adrenergic blocking drugs, Anti-adrenergic drugs (Both centrally and peripherally acting), A-adrenergic blocking, Calcium channel blockers, Diuretics, Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, Angiotension II receptor antagonist
Define antihyperlipidemic drugs Drugs used to lower serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. These drugs are usually given in addition to controlling dietary intake of fat particularly saturated fatty acids
Define anticoagulant drugs Drugs are used to "prevent" the formation and extension of a thrombosis (blood clot)
Define thrombolytic drugs Drugs that "dissolve" blood clots that have already formed within a blood vessel. "Fibrinolytic drugs" These drugs also can reopen blood vessels after they become occluded (close up)
Define antianemia drugs Drugs that treat a decreased number of red blood cells RBCs, a decrease in amount of hemoglobin and RBCs for both a decrease in the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin
What are the four types of anemias Iron deficiency, Anemia in chronic renal failure (CRF), pernicious anemia, Folic acid deficiency.
Other terms for cardiotonic's are Cardiac glycosides and digitalis glycosides
Dosages for cardiotonic's are individualized based on Patient's renal function, patient's age and ideal body weight, and the patients other medications or medical problems
Inamrinone and milrinine are given by which route? IV
The antidote for Digoxin toxicity is Digibind
Right ventricular dysfunction is the most common form of heart failure False. This is because the left ventricle dysfunction is the most common form of heart failure
There is a _______ margin of safety between the full therapeutic effects and ________ effects of cardiotonic drugs. Narrow; toxic
Digoxin has a _______ onset and a _________ duration of action Rapid; short
________ Is an adverse reaction of Digoxin immune fab. Hypokalemia (low blood potassium)
Class II antiarrhythmic drugs include Beta-adrenergic blocking drugs
The blockade effect is produced by Class II antiarrhythmic drugs
Patients taking antiarrhythmic drugs may need to be instructed on how to monitor Pulse rate
And arrhythmia can be triggered by emotional stress, hypoxia and electrolyte imbalance. True. It can also be triggered by Heart disease or from a disorder that affects cardiovascular function
Ventricular fibrillation is a rapid heartbeat with a rate of more than 100 beats per minutes usually originating in the ventricles. True or false? False. Ventricular "tachycardia" is a rapid heartbeat with a rate of more than 100 bpm usually originating in the ventricles
Calcium channel blockers are also called __________ or __________ Slow channel blockers; calcium antagonists
All antiarrhythmic drugs are used with a caution in patients with ________ or ________ disease Renal; hepatic
Why are antihypertensive drugs used cautiously in those who have electrolyte imbalances? Electrolyte imbalances may occur during therapy of a diuretic including hyponatremia (low blood sodium) and hypokalemia (low blood potassium)
Major side effect of Heparin? Routes of administration? Hemorrhaging (chief complication) ; IV or Subcutaneously
Side effects of iron salt? Occasionally causes gastrointestinal irritation, nausea, vomiting constipation, diarrhea, headache, backache and allergic reactions
What is used to relieve a nonproductive cough? Antitussives (Drugs used to relieve coughing)
Intravenous nitroglycerin is used to control perioperative hypertension associated with surgical procedures. True or false? True
Peripheral vasodilating drugs may cause _______, a physiological increase in the pulse rate. Tachycardia
Calcium channel blockers have a ________ _________ when administered with aspirin. Antiplatelet effect
Peripheral vasodilating drugs are given for disorders that affect blood vessels of the extremities. True or false? True
Patients have a decreased risk of digitalis toxicity when a calcium channel blocker is administered with digoxin. True or false? False. This is because patients have an increased risk of digitalis toxicity when a calcium channel blocker is administered with digoxin
A patient receiving a diuretic drug is observed for what adverse effects? Dehydration and electrolyte imbalances
When discontinuing use of an antihypertensive drug what should occur? The drug dosage is gradually decreased during a period of 2 to 4 days to avoid rebound hypertension.
What is rebound hypertension? A rapid rise in blood pressure
All of the following antihypertensive drugs have vasodilating activity except Diuretics.( The following antihypertensive drugs that do have vasodilating activities are; Adrenergic blocking drugs, Anti-adrenergic blocking drugs, Calcium channel blockers)
Aldosterone promotes the excretion of sodium and water which may contribute to a rise in blood pressure. True or false? False. This is because aldosterone promotes retention of sodium and water, which may increase blood pressure
Because older adults are sensitive to the hypotensive effects of nitroprusside, the drug is initially given in a single large give. True or false? False. This is because nitroprusside is initially given in lower doses to minimize hypotensive effects
Inpatients with ________, blood vessels become less flexible and stiffen, leading to cardiovascular disease and kidney damage. Isolated systolic hypertension. (a condition of only an elevated systolic pressure)
Administering potassium-sparing diuretics or potassium supplements concurrently with ACE inhibitors may cause ________. Hyperkalemia (High blood potassium)
Another name for thrombolytic drugs? Fibrinolytic drugs
What is malignant hypertension? Malignant hypertension is when the patient's diastolic pressure exceeds 130 mm Hg. This is a dangerous condition that develops rapidly and requires immediate medical attention to avoid organ damage
The patient receiving heparin has an increased risk for bleeding when also taking an NSAID
LMWH Low-molecular weight heparins "Fractionated heparins"
Bleeding associated with thrombolytic drugs may involve which of the following Brain, Gastrointestinal tract, Genitourinary tract
_______ __________ Thrombosis is the most common type of venous thrombosis and occurs in the _________ ___________ Deep vein; Lower extremities
And embolus occurs when a _______ detaches from the vessel wall and is carried along through the bloodstream Thrombus
What is warfarin used for? Warfarin is used for prevention and treatment of DVT deep vein thrombosis and arterial fibrillation with embolization and pulmonary embolism part of the treatment of myocardial infraction and prevention of thrombosis formation after valve replacement
Antacids decrease the absorption of oral iron. True or false? True
Iron salt should be taken with water on an empty stomach. True or false? True
Increased seizure activity may occur when folic acid is administered with a __________ Hydantoin
Created by: ShannonLowe



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