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PSY 2012

Exam 2

TermDefinition
Pritchard Ashwood Model Actions, Results, Evaluations, Outcomes, and Need Satisfaction
characteristics of goals that lead to increased performance. Specific, Difficult/challenging, Attainable/realistic, Commitment Feedback
antecedents of accidents Poor training, communication, design engineering, construction, regulation, and inadequate safety culture
3 key goals of Human Factors To reduce error, increase productivity, and enhance safety and comfort when the human interacts with a system.
Frederick Taylor’s Scientific Management breaking work down into its smallest identifiable components to determine the one best way to perform each component and then compiled work into larger duties and, finally, jobs.
Hawthorne Studies These studies advanced the understanding of jobs by including the interpersonal elements of the work context and concluded that that social context matters.
Developmental psychology a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
Jean Piaget specific conceptual abilities. proposed that all children pass through four discrete, age-linked stages of cognitive development, each stage with its own conceptual abilities.
Lawrence Kohlberg proposed a series of stages of moral development.
Erik Erikson proposed a series of stages of psychosocial development.
Zygotes the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.
The placenta transfers nutrients and oxygen from mother to fetus and also screens out many potentially harmful substances.
Embryo the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.
Fetus the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
Teratogens agents, such as chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial disproportions.
Maturation biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
Cognition all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Schema a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.
Assimilation interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas.
Accommodation adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
Sensorimotor stage in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
Object permanence the awareness that tings continue to exist even when not perceived.
Preoperational stage in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
Conservation the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
Egocentrism in Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view.
Theory of mind people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states
Concrete operational stage in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
Formal operational stage in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
Autism a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others’ states of mind.
Stranger anxiety the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.
Attachment an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their
Critical period an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.
Imprinting the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
Basic trust according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
Authoritarian parents impose rules and expect obedience. “Because I said so!”
Permissive parents submit to their children’s desires. Make few demands and little punishment.
Authoritative parents are both demanding and responsive. They exert control by setting rules but also explain their reasons.
Lev Vygotsky emphasized how the child’s mind grows through interaction with the social environment.
Adolescence the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
Puberty the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
Primary sex characteristics the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.
Secondary sex characteristics nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.
Menarche the first menstrual period
Spermarche the first ejaculation
Myelin the fatty tissue that forms around axons and speeds neurotransmission, enables better communication with other brain regions.
Preconventional morality before age 9, most children’s morality focuses on self-interest: they obey rules either to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards.
Conventional morality by early adolescence, morality focuses on caring for others and on upholding laws and social rules, simply because they are the laws and rules.
Postconventional morality with the abstract reasoning of formal operational thought, people may reach a third moral level. Actions are judged “right” because they flow from people’s rights or from self-defined, basic ethical principles.
Identity our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
Social identity the “we” aspect of our self concept that comes from our group memberships
Intimacy in Erikson’s theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships.
Emerging adulthood for some people in modern cultures, a period from late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescence dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood.
Menopause the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
Crystallized intelligence our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
Fluid intelligence our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.
Terminal decline within the last three or four years of life, cognitive decline typically accelerates.
Social clock the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement.
Flow a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one’s skills.
Csikszentmihalyi observed an overriding principle: It’s exhilarating to flow with an activity that fully engages our skills.
Industrial-organization (I/O) psychology the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
Personnel psychology a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development.
Organization psychology a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change.
Human factors psychology a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use.
Interviewer illusion the self-proclaimed ability to correct read people and decide whether they are meant for the job.
Structured interviews interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales.
Achievement motivation a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for rapidly attaining a high standard.
10-year rule that world-class experts in a field typically have invested “at least 10 years of hard work
Task leadership goal-orientated leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals.
Social leadership group-orientated leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support.
Voice effect if given a chance to voice their opinion during a decision-making process, people will respond more positively to the decision.
Curse of knowledge when you know a thing, it’s hard to mentally stimulate what it’s like not to know.
Memory the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
Encoding the processing of information into the memory system
Storage the retention of encoded information over time
Retrieval the process of getting information out of memory storage
Sensory memory the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
Short-term memory activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
Long-term memory the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system that includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
Working memory a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.
Automatic processing unconscious encoding of incidental information such as space, time, frequency, and well-learned information.
Effortful processing encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
Rehearsal the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
Spacing effect the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
Serial position effect our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
Imagery mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with encoding.
Mnemonics memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
Chunking organizing items into familiar, manageable units.
Iconic memory a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
Echoic memory a momentary sensor memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
Long-term potentiation (LTP) an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation.
Flashbulb memory a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
Amnesia the loss of memory.
Implicit memory retention independent of conscious recollection.
Explicit memory memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”
Hippocampus a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.
Recall a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier (fill-in-the-blank)
Recognition a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned (multiple-choice)
Relearning a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
Priming the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
Déjà vu that eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
Mood-congruent memory the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood
Proactive interference the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
Retroactive interference the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
Positive transfer knowing one thing may help in learning another
Repression in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.
Misinformation effect incorporating misleading information one one’s memory of an event
Source amnesia attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.
Motivation a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
Instinct theory focuses on genetically predisposed behaviors (now replaced by evolutionary perspective because it failed to explain human motives).
Drive-reduction theory focuses on how our inner pushes and external pulls interact.
Arousal theory focuses on finding the right level of stimulation.
Instinct a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.
Homeostasis a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular.
Incentives a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior.
Hierarchy of needs Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
Created by: JacobGant