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Midterm Exam Study

Psychology

QuestionAnswer
What is the independent variable? It is the cause of the situation. Factors that are manipulated in an experiment.
What is the dependent variable? The effect of the situation. The effects or outcomes of an experiment that are believed to be dependent on the values of the independent variable.
What is the control group? Groups of participants in a research experiment who do not receive the experimental treatment or intervention.
What is the experimental group? A method of scientific investigation involving the manipulation of independent variable and observation or measurement of their effects on dependent variables under controlled conditions.
What are the 4 general steps of the scientific method? 1. Developing a Research Question 2. Forming a Hypothesis 3. Gathering Evidence 4. Drawing Conclusions
What is psychology? The science of behavior and mental processes
What is a theory? A formulation that accounts for relationships among observed events or experimental findings in ways that make them more understandable and predictable
What is a hypothesis? A precise prediction about the outcomes of an experiment.
What is the behavioral perspective? Focus on the role of learning in explaining observable behavior
What is psychodynamic perspective? Exploring the unconscious influences of unconscious conflicts on behavior.
What is the humanistic perspective? Focuses on conscious experience and self-awareness
What is the physiological perspective? Focuses on the biological underpinnings of behavior.
What is sociocultural perspective? Explores how behavior is influenced by social and cultural factor
What is cognitive perspective? Explores the mental processes by which we acquire knowledge
What is structuralism? The school of psychology that attempts to understand the structure of the mind by breaking its components down; Wilhelm Wundt& Edward Titchener
What is functionalism? The school of psychology that focuses on the adaptive functions of behavior; William James
What is behaviorism? The school of psychology that holds that psychology should limit itself to the study of overt, observable behavior; John Watson
What is gestalt psychology? The school of psychology that holds that the brain structures our perceptions of the world in terms of meaningful patterns or wholes; Max Wertheimer
What is the case study method? An in-depth study of one or more individuals
What is the survey method? structured interviews and surveys are used to gather information from people
what are samples? subsets of a population
What is the Hindbrain? The lowest and oldest part of the brain; includes medulla, pons, cerebellum
What is the medulla? In the hindbrain; regulates basic life functions, such as heartbeat and respiration
What is the pons? In the hindbrain; involved in regulating states of wakefulness and sleep
What is the cerebellum? In hindbrain; controlling coordination and balance
What is the Midbrain? lies on top of the hindbrain and below the forebrain; includes the reticular formation
What is reticular formation? A weblike formation of neurons involved in regulating states of attantion, alertness, and arousal
What is the Forebrain? The largest and uppermost part of the brain; includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex.
What is the thalamus? In the forebrain; serves as a relay station for sensory information and that plays a key role in regulating states of wakefulness and sleep
What is the basal ganglia? An assemblage of neurons lying in the forebrain that is important in controlling movement and coordination
What is the hypothalamus? small, pea-sized structure in the forebrain that helps regulate many vital bodily functions, including body temperature and reproduction, as well as emotional states, aggression, and responses to stress
What is the limbic system? A formation of structures in the forebrain that includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and parts of the thalamus and hypothalamus. plays a role in memory and emotional processing.
What is the amygdala? Almond shaped structures in the limbic system belived to play an important role in aggression, rage and fear
What is the hippocampus? A structure in the limbic system involved in memory formation
What is the cerebral cortex? The wrinkled outer layer of gray matter that covers the cerebral hemispheres; controls higher mental functions, such as thought and language
What is the cerebrum? The largest mass of the forebrain, consisting of two cerebral hemispheres.
What is the cerebral hemispheres? The right and left masses of the cerebrum, which are joined by the corpus callosum
What is the corpus callosum? thick bundle of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres
What is the occipital lobes? The parts of the cerebral cortex, located at the back of both cerebral hemisphere, that process visual stimuli
What is the parietal lobes? The parts of the cerebral cortex, located on the side of each cerebral hemisphere, that process bodily sensations.
What is the somatosensory cortex? The part of the parietal lobe that processes information about touch and pressure on the skin, as well as the position of the parts of our bodies as we move about
What is the frontal lobes? The parts of the cerebral cortex, located at the front of the cerebral hemispheres, that are considered the "executive center" of the brain because of their role in higher mental functions.
What is the temporal lobes? The parts of the cerebral cortex, lying beneath and somewhat behind the frontal lobes that are involved in processing auditory information
What is lateralization? The specialization of the right and left cerebral hemispheres for particular functions
What is Broca's Area? An area of the frontal lobe involved in speech
What is Wernicke's Area? An area of the temporal lobe involved in processing written and spoken language
What is aphasia? Loss or impairment of the ability to understand or express language
What is epilepsy? neurological disorder causing seizures that involve sudden and violent discharges of electrical activity in the brain
What is plasticity? The ability of the brain to adapt itself after a trauma or surgical alteration.
What is stress? Pressure or demand placed on an organism to adjust or adapt
What is distress? A state of emotional or physical suffering,discomfort, pain
What is hassles? annoyances of daily life that impose a burden
Describe a Type A behavior pattern A behavior pattern characterized by impatience, time urgency, competitiveness, and hostility
What is the general adaptation syndrome ( GAS)? Selye's term for the three-stage response of the body to persistent or intense stress
What is the alarm stage? The first stage of general adaptation syndrome, involving mobilization of the body's resources to cope with an immediate stressor
What is the resistance stage? The second stage of (GAS), characterized by the body's attempt to adjust or adapt to persistent stress
What is the exhaustion stage? The third stage of (GAS), characterized by depletion of bodily resources and a lowered resistance to stress-related disorder or conditions
What is the flight-or-fight response? The body's built-in alarm system that allows it to quickly mobilize its resources to either fight or flee; happens in the alarm stage in (GAS)
What is psychological hardiness? A cluster of traits (commitment, openness to challenge, locus of control) that may buffer the effects of stress
What is the internal locus of control? belief that reward or reinforcements are a direct consequence of their actions
What is the external locus of control? belief that their fate is determined by external factors, or blind luck and not by their own efforts
What is self-efficacy? the belief that we are capable of accomplishing what we set out to do
What is an unconditioned stimulus? A stimulus that elicits an unlearned response
What is an unconditioned response? An unlearned response to a stimulus
What is a conditioned stimulus? previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
What is a conditioned response? An acquired or learned response to a conditioned stimulus.
What is stimulus generalization? The tendency for stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response
What is stimulus discrimination? The tendency to discriminate among stimuli that are related to the original conditioned stimulus, but not identical to it, fail to elicit a conditioned response
What is operant conditioning? process of learning in which the consequences of a response determine the probability that the response will be repeated
What is operant response? A response that operates on the environment to produce certain consequences
What is positive reinforcement? the strengthening of a response through the addition of a stimulus after the response occurs
What is negative reinforcement? The strengthening of a response through the removal of a stimulus after the response occurs
What is discriminative stimulus? A cue that signals that the reinforcement is available if the subject makes a particular response.
What is shaping? A process of learning that involves the reinforcement of increasingly closer approximations of the desired response
What is schedules of reinforcement? Predetermined plans for timing the delivery of reinforcement
What is schedule of continuous reinforcement? A system of dispensing a reinforcement each time a response is produced
What is schedule of partial reinforcement? A system of reinforcement in which only a portion of responses is reinforced
What is escape learning? The learning of behaviors that allow an organism to escape from an aversive stimulus
What is avoidance learning? The learning of behaviors that allow an organism to avoid an aversive stimulus
What is punishment? The introduction of an aversive stimulus or removal of reinforcing stimulus after a response occurs, which leads to the weakening or suppression of the response
What is cognitive learning? Learning that occurs without the opportunity of first performing the learned response or being reinforced for it
What is insight learning? The process of mentally working through a problem until the sudden realization of a solution occurs
What is latent learning? Learning that occurs without apparent reinforcement and that is not displayed until reinforcement is provided
What is observational learning? Learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others
What is memory storage? The process of retaining information in memory
What is memory retrieval? The process of accessing and bringing into consciousness
What is the three-stage model? A model of memory that posits memory into three distinct stages of memory: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
What is sensory memory? The storage system that holds memory of sensory impressions for a very short time
What is sensory register? A temporary storage device for holding sensory memories
What is iconic memory? A sensory store for holding a mental representation of a visual image for a fraction of a second
What is eidetic memory? A lingering mental representation of a visual image(photographic memory)
What is an echoic memory? A sensory store for holding a mental representation of a sound for a few seconds after it registers
What is maintenance rehearsal? The process of extending retention of information held in short-term memory by consciously repeating information
What is consolidation? The process of converting short-term memories into long-term memories
What is elaborative rehearsal? The process of transferring information from short-term memory to long-term memory by consciously focusing on the meaning of the information
What is semantic memory? Memory for facts
What is episodic memory? Personal experiences
What is retrospective memory? memory of past experiences and acquired information
What is prospective memory? memory of future actions
What is implicit memory? memory accessed without conscious effort
What is explicit memory? memory accessed with conscious effort
What is flashbulb memories? Enduring memories of emotionally charged events that seem permanently seared into the brain
What is savings method? A method of testing memory retention by comparing the number of trials needed to learn material with the number of trial needed to relearn the material at a later time
What is interference theory? The belief that forgetting is the result of the interference of memories with each other
What is retroactive interference? A form of interference in which newly acquired information interferes with retention of material learned earlier
What is proactive interference? A form of interference in which material learned earlier interferes with retention of newly acquired information
What is overlearning? Practice repeated beyond the point necessary to reproduce without error
What is serial position effect? The tendency to recall items at the start or end of a list better than the items at the middle
What is primacy effect? The tendency to recall items when they are learned first
What is recency effect? The tendency to recall items better when they are learned last
What is free recall? A type of recall task in which individuals are asked to recall as many stored items as possible in any order
What is amnesia? Loss of memory
What is retrograde amnesia? Loss of memory of past events
What is anterograde amnesia? Loss or impairment of the ability to form or store new memories
What is dissociative amnesia? A psychologically based form of amnesia involving the "splitting off" from memory of traumatic or troubling experiences.
Created by: zuleyha123