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Psych 204 MT 2 uofr

Hypothesis Testing Your research strategy is determined by the kind of question you hope to answer
Quantitative Research Summarizes variables that vary in quantity. Tests hypothesis derived from theory-- deductive and confirmatory
Qualitative Research makes observations that are summarized and interpreted. Develop theories from participants responses -- inductive and exploratory. Best way to study a phenomenon is in context (finds homeless person and talks to them.
Validity validity of a research study is the degree to which the research strategy answers your research question.
Threats to validity are any elements of a research strategy that raise doubt about the research conclusion
External Validity Concerns the extent to which the research findings are true outside your specific study
Internal Validity When a research strategy produces one unambiguous explanation for the relationship between variables
Threats to External Validity are characteristics of a research strategy that limit the ability to generalize from the research results.
Threats to Internal Validity Factors that allow for alternative explanations for the research results.
Artifacts Something that explains why a result really ends up the way it does. Artifacts are threats to both internal and external validity.
Experimenter Bias When measurements are influenced by the experimenters expectations.
Rosenthal Experiment Studied rats who were said to be bread to be smart and rats who were bread to be dumb. However there was no difference in the rats yet the smart rats did better. Something the researcher did changed the performance. He then did this with children.
Demand Characteristics These are cues in an experiment that convey to participants a hypothesis or and explanation for their behaviour.
Orne Experiment Brought people in who could not be hypnotized and told them to pretend to be hypnotized, while some could be hypnotized others couldnt. The hypnotist could not tell who was hypnotized and neither could Orne when he tried.
In Ornes experiment what was the artifacts? Really good actors, people who wanted to help
3 types of subjects Good subjects, evaluation apprehensive subjects, screw you subjects
Burkowitz Study Give electric shocks then give back shots but have shotgun in room or tennis racquet. More shocks with rifle in room. Then done with rifle in pick up truck. More aggression without rifle in window.
Single Blind When the researcher does not know the outcome.
Double Blind When the subject and the researcher does not know the outcome.
Triple Blind When no one included in the study knows the outcome
Barge or Varge Sort words and pictures and timed how long after it took to go down the hall. Prime words made people go slower. After blinding results were not obtained.
True experiment A true experiment attempts to establish cause by showing that changes in one variable are responsible for changes in another variable
Manipulation The variable manipulated by the researcher is the independent value
Measurement The variable measured by the researcher is the dependent variable
Comparison Compare two groups
Control Control everything else
Dealing with extraneous variables manipulation Addresses the extraneous variables problem by ruling out such variables. EXAMPLE Experiment on humorous material on memory. Confounding variable is surprise. manipulate surprise.
Random Assignment The use of a random process to assign participants to treatment conditions.
The Random Control Trial(RCT) Assigns participants at random to a treatment and control group. Large scale RCT's in medicine trump all. EXAMPLE. Beta Carotine(carrots)
Allocation Concealment Hiding the assignment of the next participant to a condition.
Control Group This refers to the no-treatment condition in an experiment
No Treatment Control Group A condition in which participants do not receive treatment or anything else.
Placebo Control Group Receives inert substance or activity.
Placebo Effect This refers to a response by a participant to an inert substance because they think it is effective.
Hawthorne Effect The change that occurs from introducing any new treatment or measuring a behavior.
Compensatory Rivalry When the control group finds out what the treatment group is receiving and then behaves differently.
Compensatory Equalization When the control group finds out what the treatment group is receiving and wants the same
Within Subject Design A single group of participants is tested in all treatment conditions. Has the advantage of fewer people and elimates individual differences. Disadvantage is Carry Over Effect. use counter balance to fix disadvantage.
Carry over effect Conditions start to step on each other. Deception does not work.
Counterbalance Counter balance or change the order of the treatment conditions from participant to participant
Matched Subject Design A hybrid design that uses a seperate group for each treatment condition but matches each individual.
Factorial Design When two or more independent variables are combined in one study, the independent variables are commonly called FACTORS with two or more LEVELS.
Keisler and Baral's Study(Romance) All males in the experiment and are to solve experiments then grade them all right or wrong to mess with self esteem. Then the coffee table romance. Is there a main effect for self esteem? is there a main effect for attractiveness? is there interaction?
Quasi-Experimental or Non Equivalent Research Designs resemble true experiments but the treatment conditions are NOT created by manipulating an independent variable.
Pre-Post Design When a series of observations are made over time
One Group Pretest-post test design Consists of only one observation(before and After) for each participant. EXAMPLE DIAGRAM O X O. Ulcer experiment.
Time Series Design Requires a series of observations for each participant before and after a treatment. ED - O O O X O O O. Effects of television on community compared before and after.
Pretest - Post Test Non-Equivalent Control Group Design Requires observing two groups before and after a treatment is administered to one of the two groups. ED- O X O (Treatment Group) O O (Non-equivalent control group).
Developmental Design The purpose of developmental design is to examine changes in behavior related design
Cross-Sectional Developmental Designs Measures different individuals over time. The advantage is you do not wait for participants to age. Disadvantage is that factors other than age may explain your results.
Cohort Individuals from the same time period and similar circumstances are from the same cohort.
Cohort Effects Refer to differences between cohorts caused by unique characteristics other than age. EX>Empathy scores have declined.
Longitudinal Research Design Measures the SAME individuals over some period of time. Advantages are the absence of cohort effects and ability to track people over time. Disadvantages are expense(time, money) and participant attrition.
Cross-Sectional Longitudinal Design Combines cross section and longitudinal designs.
3 behaviour Categories Frequency, Duration, Interval
Frequency Method Involves counting each specific behavior that occurs during a fixed time period
Duration Method Involves recording the amount of time an individual engages in a specific behavior during a fixed period.
Interval Method Involves dividing the observation period into intervals then recording whether a specific behavior occurs during each interval.
Naturalistic or Non-participant observation When the researcher observes natural behavior unobtrusively.
Participant Observation When the researcher interacts with the participants to record behavior(When prophecy Fails, Rosenham).
Contrived or Structured Observation To create a situation to observe infrequent natural behavior.
Content Analysis When researchers measure behavior or events in books, movies or other media.
Regression Toward the Mean This occurs when subjects are selected on the basis of extreme scores during a test.
Created by: davidvachon1