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RADT 456 RAD PROT.

ARRT registry review covering radiation protection

QuestionAnswer
Wave-like fluctuations of electric and magnetic fields describes what kind of radiation? Electromagnetic; Pg. 225
What unit is frequency measured in? hertz (Hz); Pg. 225
What is the greatest portion of our background radiation exposure due to? Naturally occurring sources; Pg. 226
What percent of the x-ray beam is made up of Bremsstrahlung radiation? 70-90%; Pg. 227
T/F: The energy of the characteristic ray is equal to the difference in energy between the K and L shells. True; Pg. 227
T/F: The photoelectric effect is more likely to occur in absorbers having low atomic number and with high-energy photons. False; high atomic number and low-energy photons; Pg. 228
Compton scatter can contribute to image ___ and pose a radiation hazard to ___. fog/personnel; Pg. 229
What kind of curves are used to illustrate the relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and possible resultant biologic responses? Dose-responce curves; Pg. 230
T/F: A nonthreshold curve has no safe dose. True; Pg. 231
What kind of risks are characterized by nonlinear dose responses and are associated with a threshold (safe) dose below which no effect is observed? Deterministic risks; Pg. 232
The Law of Bergonie and Tribondeau stated that which 3 kinds of tissues or cells are particularly radiosensitive? Stem cells, Young immature tissues, and Highly mitotic cells; Pg. 233
T/F: Diagnostic x-rays are considered high LET radiation. False; low LET radiation; Pg. 234
What kind of effect occurs when the ionizing particle interacts directly with the key molecule (DNA) or another critical enzyme or protein. Direct effect; Pg. 234
What kind of effect takes place when ionization takes place away from the DNA molecule, in cellular water? Indirect effect; Pg. 234
What does the 10-day rule state? The first 10 days following onset of the menses is the safest time to schedule elective procedures of the abdomen/pelvis.; Pg. 238
What kind of effects of radiation are those that affect the irradiated body itself? Somatic effects; Pg. 240
What is probably the single most important factor in keeping patient dose to a minimum? Beam restriction; Pg. 250
T/F: Inherent filtration tends to decrease as the x-ray tube ages. False; increase; Pg. 253
What are the three different kinds of gonadal shields? Flat contact, shadow, and contour (shaped) contact; Pg. 255
T/F: Repeat exposures contribute to a significant increase in unnecessary patient exposure. True; Pg. 259
When testing reproducibility, any variation in output intensity must not exceed ___%. 5%; Pg. 262
When testing linearity, any variation in output intensity must not exceed ___%. 10%; Pg. 262
What is the principal source of scattered radiation? The patient; Pg. 269
What are the cardinal principles of radiation protection? Time, distance and shielding; Pg. 269
The intensity of scattered radiation 1m from the patient is approximately ___% of the intensity of the primary beam. 0.1%; Pg. 270
Lead aprons and lead gloves must be at least ___mm Pb equivalent. 0.25mm; Pg. 271
What does it mean that lead aprons, lead gloves, and other apparel are secondary barriers? They do not provide protection from the useful beam; Pg. 273
The gestational dose limit to the fetus during the gestation period must not exceed 500 mrem. What is this amount in mSv? 5 mSv; Pg. 274
What is the internationally accepted unit of measure for exposure to x- or gamma radiations? Roentgen; Pg. 281
What is the number assigned to different types of ionizing radiations so that their effect(s) may be better determined? Radiation weighting factor (Wr); Pg. 282
What kind of monitoring device contains a thin layer of aluminum oxide (Al2O3)? Optically stimuled luminescence (OSL); Pg. 283
What kind of monitoring device uses various filters to determine the type and energy of ionizing radiation received? Film Badge; Pg. 284
What monitoring device contains crystalline chips of lithium fluoride (LiF)? Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD); Pg. 285
What kind of dosimeter is worn with high exposures or large quantities of radiation for short periods of time and allows an immediate reading to the user? Pocket dosimeter; Pg. 285
A pregnant radiographer's gestational exposure to the fetus must not exceed ___ rem. 0.5 rem; Pg. 289
Created by: Kaci Gehlhausen