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Nichole's Questions

Questions From the Back of Chapters

The superior portion of the sternum manubrium
respiratory zone of the lungs primary lobule
pharyngotympanic (auditory/eustacian) tubes are found where? nasopharynx
What kind of cell is found in the alveoli? simple squamous epithelium
The left main stem bronchus angles off from the carina at what angle? 40-60 degrees
pharyngeal tonsils are also called what? adenoids
What are the small openings in the walls of the interalveolar space? pores of Kohn
What is released when the parasympathetic nerve is stimulated? acetylcholine
Calsalva's Maneuver massive adduction of the laryngeal walls; larynx and glottis is tightly sealed
What prevents the aspiration of foods and liquids? Epiglottis
The first line of defense for the tracheobronchial tree is the ________. Vibrissae. The hair in nose that prevents large particles from entering the nasal cavity.
What cranial nerve supplies motor innervation to the laryngopharngeal musculature? Tenth cranial nerve
In a normal adult cilia beat approximately ___ time per minute. 1500
Where the canals of Lambert are found. Terminal bronchioles.
Which of the following are call the resistance vessels? arterioles
The right main stem bronchus branches off the trachea at what angle? 25 degree angle (it is also wider and about 5cm shorter than the left bronchus)
The left lung contains how many bronchopulmonary segments? 8
Bronchial arteries nourish the tracheobronchial tree down to and including the ___________. Terminal bronchioles
The lower lobe of the right lungs contains how many segments? 5 segments in the lower, 3 segments in the upper, and 2 segments in the middle lobe
Nerves that supply motor innervation of each hemidiaphragm phrenic nerve and the lower thoracic nerves
The inferior portion of the larynx is composed of _____? cricoid cartilage
What structures are known as capacitance vessels? Veins, because they are capable of collecting a large amount of blood with very little pressure change
parasympathetic blocking agent atropine; parasympathetic blocking agent; the sympathetic system becomes dominant and bronchial relaxation occurs
What forms the nasal septum? Ethmoid bone and the vomer
Of the bronchi and bronchioles which has the largest combined cross section? Terminal bronchioles , the cross sections get progressively larger the farther down the trachoebronchial tree
What is the outermost layer of the pulmonary veins tunica adventica
What muscles are accessory muscles of inspiration? Trapezius muscles, Scalene muscles, External intercostal muscles, Sternocleidomastoid muscles, Pectoralis major muscles
Causes constriction of bronchial smooth muscle acetylcholine
lung segment call the superior lingula left lung, lower division of upper lobe
increased contact area between inspired air and the nasal mucosa turbinates or conchae
The primary lobule is also called ________. acinus
What muscles are accessory muscles of expiration? Rectus abdominis, External abdominis obliques, Internal abdominis obliques, Transversus abdominis, Internal intercostals
Released when the sympathetic nerve fibers are stimulated norepinephrine and epinephrine
cartilage is found where on the tracheobronchial tree in all the bronchi and trachea
secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth lingual frenulum
cell type that lines anterior one third of the nasal cavity stratified squamous epithilum
pleural cavity potential space between the visceral and parietal pleurae
The horizontal fissure separates __________? The upper and middle lobes of the right lung.
pneumothorax air between parietal and visceral pleurae that causes the lung to collapse
muscle that elevates the soft palate Levator veli palatine muscle
95% of alveolar surface is composed of what kind of cells? Type 1 cells / squamous pneumocytes
What structures are lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium cells? Trachea and the nasopharynx and down to and including the terminal bronchioles
The average lung compliance of the lungs and the chest wall combined is _________ ? 0.1 L/cm H2O
Normally the airway resistance in the tracheobronchial tree is about __________? 0.5 - 1.5 cm H20/L/sec
In a normal individual in the upright position -the neg. pleural pressure is greater(more neg) in the upper lung regions -ventilation is more effective in the lower lung regions -the pleural pressure is always below atmospheric pressure during normal ventilatory cycle
When lung compliance decreases, the patient commonly has __________. An increase ventilatory rate and a decreased tidal volume
When arranged for flow poiseuille's law states that flow is _________. directly proportional to P Inversely proportional to viscosity of the gas
During a normal exhalation the ____________. Intra-alveolar pressure is greater than the atmospheric pressure and the pleural pressure is less than the atmospheric pressure.
At rest, the normal pleural pressure change during quiet breathing is about _________. 2-4mm Hg
Normally, an individual's tidal volume is about_____. 3-4 mL/lb
A rapid and shallow ventilatory pattern is called ___________. Tachypnea
Assuming the pressure remains constant, if the radius of the bronchial airway through which gas flows at a rate of 400L/min is reduced to one-half of its original size, the flow through the bronchial airway would change to _____. 25 L/min
The difference between the alveolar pressure and the pleural pressure is called the ________. transpulmonary pressure
According to Laplace's law, if a bubble with the radius of 4cm and a distending pressure of 10 cm H2O is reduced to a radius of 2cm, the distending pressure of the bubble will be _____. 20 cm H20
If alveolar unit A has one-half the compliance of alveolar unit B, then the __________. volume in unit B is two times greater than volume in unit A and the time constant of unit B is twice as long as that of unit A.
If a patient produces a flow rate of 5L/sec during a forced exhalation by generating a transrespiratory pressure of 20 cm/H2O, what is the patient's Raw? Raw = change in pressure/flow rate 4 cm H20/L/sec
As Raw increases, the patient commonly manifests __________. A decreased ventilatory rate and an increased tidal tidal volume
If the radius of a bronchial airway, which has the driving pressure of 2 mm Hg, is reduced by 16% of its original size, what will the new driving pressure required to maintain the same gas flow through the bronchial airways? 4 mm Hg
In a health lung, when the alveolus decreases in size during a normal exhalation, the surface tension decreases surfactant to alveolar surface area increases
At end-expiration, Pta is _____. 0 mm Hg
Because the patient's ribs were broken on the right side, his right chest _________ during each inspiration. caved inward
Created by: nnilles