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Ch 20


Anti-infective medications are commonly referred to as antibiotics.
Antibiotics are effective against many types of bacteria
Antibiotics are not effective against any viral infection
For antibiotics to be effective against a bacterial infection they must be taken on time and until the prescription is completed
If this procedure is not followed, the infection can remain and the possibility of a resistant strain of bacteria can be created
Bacteria are identified by using a staining technique
Bacteria that stain pink are called gram negative
Bacteria that stain violet are called gram positive
Broad spectrum antibiotics are effective against a variety of different types of bacteria
Antibiotics can reduce the effectiveness of an influenza vaccination
Sulfonamide antibiotics are commonly referred to as sulfa drugs
sulfadiazine sulfonamide antibiotics
sulfisoxazole sulfonamide antibiotics
Gantrisin sulfonamide antibiotics
trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) sulfonamide antibiotics
Bactrim sulfonamide antibiotics
Septra sulfonamide antibiotics
sulfisoxazole AKA Gantrisin
trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) (free) AKA Bactrim
trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) (free) AKA Septra
Penicillin is abbreviated PCN
amoxicillin penicillin antibiotics
Amoxil penicillin antibiotics
Trimox penicillin antibiotics
ampicillin penicillin antibiotics
Principen penicillin antibiotics
dicloxacillin penicillin antibiotics
nafcillin penicillin antibiotics
oxacillin penicillin antibiotics
penicillin penicillin antibiotics
Pfizerpen penicillin antibiotics
Bicillin penicillin antibiotics
Permapen penicillin antibiotics
piperacillin penicillin antibiotics
ticarcillin penicillin antibiotics
Ticar penicillin antibiotics
Augmentin penicillin antibiotics
amoxicillin (free) AKA Amoxil
amoxicillin (free) AKA Trimox
ampicillin (free) AKA Principen
penicillin (free) AKA Pfizerpen
penicillin (free) AKA Bicillin
penicillin (free) AKA Permapen
ticarcillin AKA Ticar.
Penicillin (PCN) resistant bacteria produce an antagonistic enzyme called penicillinase
MRSA stands for methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus
Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is resistant to the penicillin antibiotics
Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is normally found in 1% of the general population
The most common place to find methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a hospital or nursing facility
Most methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are not serious but some can be life threatening
Conditions most susceptible to methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection include Diabetes mellitus (DM).
Conditions most susceptible to methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection include . Cancer (Ca).
Conditions most susceptible to methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection include Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Outbreaks of community associated methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (CAMRSA) have been seen where people share close quarters such as schools, gyms, and day care centers
The most effective technique to prevent methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is proper hand washing
PRSP stands for penicillin resistant streptococcus pneumonia
cefadroxil cephalosporin antibiotics
Duricef cephalosporin antibiotics
cefazolin cephalosporin antibiotics
cephalexin cephalosporin antibiotics
Keflex cephalosporin antibiotics
cefaclor cephalosporin antibiotics
Ceclor cephalosporin antibiotics
cefditoren cephalosporin antibiotics
Spectracef cephalosporin antibiotics
cefotetan cephalosporin antibiotics
Cefotan cephalosporin antibiotics
cefoxitin cephalosporin antibiotics
Mefoxin cephalosporin antibiotics
cefprozil cephalosporin antibiotics
Cefzil cephalosporin antibiotics
cefuroxime cephalosporin antibiotics
Ceftin cephalosporin antibiotics
Zinacef cephalosporin antibiotics
cefdinir cephalosporin antibiotics
Omnicef cephalosporin antibiotics
cefepime cephalosporin antibiotics
Maxipime cephalosporin antibiotics
cefixime cephalosporin antibiotics
Suprax cephalosporin antibiotics
cefoperazone cephalosporin antibiotics
Cefobid cephalosporin antibiotics
cefotaxime cephalosporin antibiotics
Claforan cephalosporin antibiotics
cefpodoxime cephalosporin antibiotics
Vantin cephalosporin antibiotics
ceftazidime cephalosporin antibiotics
Tazicef cephalosporin antibiotics
Ceptaz cephalosporin antibiotics
Fortaz cephalosporin antibiotics
ceftibuten cephalosporin antibiotics
Cedax cephalosporin antibiotics
ceftizoxime cephalosporin antibiotics
Cefizox cephalosporin antibiotics
ceftriaxone cephalosporin antibiotics
Rocephin cephalosporin antibiotics
Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is resistant to cephalosporin antibiotics
Many patients who are allergic to penicillin (PCN) antibiotics are also allergic to cephalosporin antibiotics
gentamicin aminoglycoside antibiotics
Garamycin aminoglycoside antibiotics
kanamycin aminoglycoside antibiotics
Kantrex aminoglycoside antibiotics
amakacin aminoglycoside antibiotics
Amakin aminoglycoside antibiotics
neomycin aminoglycoside antibiotics
paromomycin aminoglycoside antibiotics
Humatin aminoglycoside antibiotics
streptomycin aminoglycoside antibiotics
tobramycin aminoglycoside antibiotics
TOBI aminoglycoside antibiotics
Tobrex aminoglycoside antibiotics
gentamicin AKA Garamycin
The aminoglycoside antibiotics can be nephrotoxic and/or ototoxic
doxycycline tetracycline antibiotics
Vibramycin tetracycline antibiotics
Vibra-Tabs tetracycline antibiotics
demeclocycline. tetracycline antibiotics
Declomycin tetracycline antibiotics
Minocycline tetracycline antibiotics
Dynacin. tetracycline antibiotics
Minocin tetracycline antibiotics
tetracycline tetracycline antibiotics
Sumycin tetracycline antibiotics
Cipro miscellaneous antibiotics
ciprofloxacin miscellaneous antibiotics
Zithromax Z-Pak miscellaneous antibiotics
azithromycin miscellaneous antibiotics
Biaxin miscellaneous antibiotics
Levaquin miscellaneous antibiotics
Floxin miscellaneous antibiotics
Avelox miscellaneous antibiotics
vancomycin miscellaneous antibiotics
Cipro (ciprofloxacin) can lose effectiveness if combined with fruit juices
doxycycline (free) AKA Vibramycin
doxycycline (free) AKA Vibra-Tabs
Zithromax Z-Pak azithromycin
Vancomycin is commonly used to treat methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
VRSA stands for vancomycin resistant staphylococcus aureus.
VRE stands for vancomycin resistant enterococcus
erythromycin (free) AKA E.E.S.
erythromycin (free) AKA Eryzole
erythromycin (free) AKA Eryderm
erythromycin (free) AKA Eryc
erythromycin (free) AKA EryPed
erythromycin (free) AKA Pediazole
erythromycin (free) AKA Erythrocin
erythromycin (free) AKA Ery-Tab.
Erythromycin drops (gtt) are commonly used to treat sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the eyes of neonates (newborns) {NB}.
Probenecid is a medication that prolongs the therapeutic blood levels of ampicillin and cephalosporins
A class of medications that some antibiotics have an antagonistic effect upon are the oral contraceptive pills (OCP) AKA birth control pills (BCP).
AIDS stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus
The “window period” for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is 2 weeks to 6 months
The “window period” is the time between exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and detection with a blood test
A person with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can transmit the virus to others during the window period.
The average incubation period between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exposure and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is 2-8 years
The diagnosis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurs when the CD4 T lymphocyte count drops below 200 mm3 or an opportunistic infection occurs
Opportunistic infections include . PCP (pneumocystis carinii pneumonia).
Opportunistic infections include TB (tuberculosis
Opportunistic infections include KS (Kaposi’s sarcoma
Opportunistic infections include Herpes simplex virus (HSV) I+II
Herpes simplex virus I (HSVI) causes herpetic stomatitis AKA cold sores.
Herpes simplex virus II (HSVII) causes genital herpes
Herpes zoster causes shingles.
Candida albicans (candidiasis causes vaginal yeast (fungal) infections and thrush.
Opportunistic infections include Candida albicans (candidiasis)
Antiviral medications work by interfering with the reproductive cycle of the virus targeted.
Antiviral medications used to treat the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) include: Retrovir (zidovudine
Antiviral medications used to treat the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) include: Epivir (lamivudine).
Antiviral medications used to treat the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) include: Sustiva (efavirenz
Retrovir aka zidovudine)
Epivir aka lamivudine)
Sustiva aka efavirenz
Retrovir (zidovudine), Epivir (lamivudine), and Sustiva (efavirenz) are routinely given in combination and called an AIDS cocktail
These antiviral medications to treat the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) must be taken every day in order to prevent the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from developing a resistance
Lithobid (lithium) is used to treat the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) because of the side effect of leukocytosis.
Leukocytosis means an elevated white blood cell count (WBC).
Lithobid (lithium) is primarily used to treat manic-depressive illness (MDI) AKA bipolar mental disorder (BMD).
Antiviral medications used to treat the HSVI include: acyclovir
Antiviral medications used to treat the HSVI include: Zovirax
Antiviral medications used to treat the HSVI include: Abreva
acyclovir AKA Zovirax
Antiviral medications used to treat the HSVII include: acyclovir
Antiviral medications used to treat the HSVII include: Zovirax
Antiviral medications used to treat the HSVII include: Valtrex.
Antiviral medications used to treat herpes zoster include: acyclovir
Antiviral medications used to treat herpes zoster include: Zovirax
Antiviral medications used to treat herpes zoster include: Zostrix
Antiviral medications used to treat herpes zoster include: Valtrex
Antiviral medications used to treat influenza A and B include: Tamiflu.
Antiviral medications used to treat influenza A and B include: Relenza
Antiviral medications used to treat influenza A and B include: Symmetrel
Fungal infections (dermatophytosis) include: Ringworm
Fungal infections (dermatophytosis) include: tinea corporis
Fungal infections (dermatophytosis) include: Athlete’s foot
Fungal infections (dermatophytosis) include: tinea pedis.
Fungal infections (dermatophytosis) include: Jock itch
Fungal infections (dermatophytosis) include: tinea cruris
Fungal infections (dermatophytosis) include: Fungal infection of the scalp
Fungal infections (dermatophytosis) include: tinea capitis
Ringworm AKA tinea corporis
Athlete’s foot AKA tinea pedis.
Jock itch AKA tinea cruris
Fungal infection of the scalp AKA tinea capitis (“cradle cap”).
Candida albicans (candidiasis) AKA vaginal yeast infection or thrush.
Onychomycosis which is a fungal infection of the nails.
Medications used to treat fungal infections (dermatophytosis) are called antifungals
Diflucan Antifungal medications
fluconazole Antifungal medications
Nizoral Antifungal medications
ketoconazole Antifungal medications
amphotericin B Antifungal medications
Fungizone Antifungal medications
Monistat Antifungal medications
Vagistat Antifungal medications
miconazole Antifungal medications
tioconazole. Antifungal medications
Diflucan AKA fluconazole
Nizoral AKA ketoconazole.
. amphotericin B AKA Fungizone
Monistat or Vagistat AKA miconazole or tioconazole
The bag or bottle containing intravenous (I.V.) I.V. fluid, connecting tubing, and a needle or flexible catheter inserted in the vein is called an intravenous (I.V.) line
Intravenous (I.V.) infusion rate orders are usually expressed as mL/hour or cc/hour
When an intravenous (I.V.) fluid is administered over several hours it is called an intravenous (I.V.) drip.
A drop (gt) is AKA minim.
A small bag/bottle of medication connected into the intravenous (I.V.) tubing and hung next to the main intravenous (I.V.) bag/bottle is called an intravenous piggyback (IVPB).
Intravenous (I.V.) tubing has rubber stoppers to inject medications called ports.
For a medication to reach the bloodstream immediately, it is injected into an intravenous (I.V.) port and is called an intravenous push (IVP
Another name for this intravenous (I.V.) loading dose is a bolus
A very slow infusion of intravenous (I.V.) fluid designed to prevent coagulation from occurring at the opening of the intravenous (I.V.) catheter is called keep vein open (KVO) AKA to keep open (TKO).
Intermittent administration of intravenous (I.V.) medications and fluids via an intravenous (I.V.) access site without the intravenous (I.V.) tubing or continuous intravenous (I.V.) infusion is called a reseal or heparin lock (“hep-lock”).
Heparin is classified as an anticoagulant.
A computer that controls the amount of intravenous (I.V.) solution delivered to a patient is called an infusion pump
A programmable device allowing a patient to administer their own intravenous (I.V.) analgesic is called patient controlled analgesia (PCA).
A catheter inserted into a peripheral vein and advanced to the superior vena cava for prolonged intravenous (I.V.) therapy such as antineoplastics is called a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC).
normal saline solution AKA 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl).
1/2 NS or 1/2 NSS which stands for one half normal saline solution AKA 0.45% sodium chloride (NaCl).
The term saline means salt
The salts of the body are also referred to as electrolytes (“lytes”) and include: sodium (Na), potassium (K), and chloride (Cl).
Created by: 1130905247



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