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RADT456 Rad Proced.

ARRT registry review covering Radiographic Procedures

QuestionAnswer
Typical location of abdominal viscera (stomach, gallbladder, and colon) in a hypersthenic patient. High and lateral (pg. 81)
Typical location of abdominal viscera (stomach, gallbladder, and colon) in an asthenic patient. Low and medial (pg. 81)
Name the four body habitus types from largest to smallest Hypersthenic, sthenic, hyposthenic, asthenic. (pg. 81)
A turning outward or lateral motion of an articulation. Eversion (pg. 84)
The most important means to eliminate voluntary motion on an image. Good communication (pg. 87)
The most important way to eliminate involuntary motion. Shortest exposure time (pg. 87)
Number of bones within the human adult skeleton. 206. (pg. 91)
Functions of the skeletal system. Support, reservoir for minerals, muscle attachment/movement, protection, and hematopoieseis. (pg. 91)
Name the levels of the spine and each corresponding body part/landmark. C1 : Mastoid process C5 : Thyroid cartilage T2-3: Suprasternal notch T4-5: Sternal angle T10 : Xiphoid process L4 : Iliac Crest S1-2: ASIS Coccyx: Pubic Symphysis/Greater Trochanters (pg. 80)
The three classifications of bony articulations. Synarthrotic (immovable), Amphiarthrotic (partially movable), and diathrotic (freely movable/Synovial). (pg. 91-92)
Types of diathrotic/synovial joints Gliding (plane), Pivot (trochoid), Hinge (ginglymus), Ball & Socket (spheroid), Condyloid (ellipsoid), and Saddle (Sellar). (pg. 93)
Most common type of arthritis. Osteoarthritis (degenerative arthritis). (pg. 93)
Contents of the appendicular skeleton Extremities: Arms, legs, shoulder/pelvic girdles (pg. 93)
The four classifications of bones Long, short, flat, and irregular. (pg. 94)
The primary ossification center during bone development. Diaphysis (Shaft). (pg. 94)
The secondary ossification center of bones. Epiphysis (pg. 94)
Name the carpal bones from lateral to medial (proximal row, followed by distal row). Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate (pg. 96)
Usually the last bone to completely ossify (At approximately at age 21), and one of the most commonly fractured bones in young people. Clavicle (pg. 100)
Central ray location for hand projections. Perpendicular to 3rd MCP joint. (pg. 102)
Central ray location for thumb projections. Perpendicular to MCP joint. (pg. 103)
Central ray location for finger projections. Perpendicular to proximal IP joint. (pg. 103)
Central ray location for forearm projections. Perpendicular to mid-forearm (pg. 105)
Central ray location for humerus projections. Perpendicular to mid-humerus (pg. 105)
The largest tarsal bone. Calcaneus (pg. 109)
Number of tarsal bones. 7. (pg. 109)
What is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body? The patella (pg. 112)
What is the longest and strongest bone in the human body? Femur (pg. 113)
The knee is formed by... The proximal tibia, patella, and distal femur (pg. 111)
Pelvis is the Latin word for... "basin." (pg. 115)
The three fused bones that comprise the pelvic girdle. Ilium, ischium, and pubis. (pg. 115)
Characteristics of a normal male pelvis (compared to female pelvis). Narrower than females, more vertical, deeper from anterior to posterior, pubic angle less than 90 degrees, pelvic inlet narrower and heart shaped/round. (pg. 117)
Characteristics of a normal female pelvis (compared to male pelvis). Wider and more angled toward horizontal than the male pelvis, shallower from anterior to posterior, pubic angle greater than 90 degrees, and pelvic inlet larger and rounder. (pg. 117)
Approximate degree of angle for an AP foot projection. 10 degrees toward the heal (cephalic). (pg. 119)
Position of the foot that best demonstrates the sinus tarsi. Medial oblique foot (pg. 119)
Degree of rotation for a mortise view ankle image. 15-20 degrees (pg. 122)
Degree of central ray angle for patients with ASIS to table top measurement of less than 19 cm. 3-5 degrees caudal (pg. 124)
Degree of central ray angle for patients with ASIS to table top measurement of 19-24 cm. 0 degrees (pg. 124)
Degree of central ray angle for patients with ASIS to table top measurement that is greater than 24 cm. 3-5 degrees cephalad (pg. 124)
What is the CR angle and entrance location on an AP outlet view of a male pelvis. 20-35 degrees cephalad to pubic symphysis (pg. 127)
What is the CR angle and entrance location on AP outlet views on a female pelvis. 30-45 degrees cephalad to pubic symphysis. (pg. 127)
What is the CR angle and entrance location on AP inlet views of the pelvis. 40 degrees caudad, entering midway between ASIS. (pg. 127)
Degree of patient rotation for AP sacroiliac joint views. 25-30 degrees LPO/RPO (while imaging side up). (pg. 128)
Type of fracture composed of several fragments. Comminuted fracture (pg. 131)
Comminuted fracture with one or more wedge or butterfly wing-shaped pieces. Butterfly fracture. (pg. 131)
Fracture where the end of the bone has penetrated the skin (open fracture). Compound fracture (pg. 131)
Fracture to the head of the 5th metacarpal. Boxer fracture (pg. 131)
Transverse fracture of the distal third of the radius with posterior angulation. Colle's fracture (pg. 131)
What does the axial skeleton consist of? Facial/cranial bones of the skull, the 5 sections of the vertebral column, sternum, and ribs (pg. 133)
How many bones comprises the vertebral column? 33 (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 fused sacral, and 4 fused coccyx). (pg. 133)
What sections of the vertebral column are lordotic? Cervical and lumbar (pg. 133)
What sections of the vertebral column are kyphotic? Thoracic and sacral regions (pg. 133)
What two structures meet to form apophyseal joints of the spine? Superior and inferior articular process of vertebra (pg. 134)
Types of motion capable from vertebral column articulations. Flexion, extension, and lateral/rotary motions (pg. 134)
Point where superior articular processes of C-2 articulate with the skull. Atlanto-occipital joint (pg. 135)
A pivot point where rotation of the head occurs Atlantoaxial joint (pg. 135)
Typical characteristics of cervical vertebrae Bi-fid spinous processes (except C-7), transverse foramina, and small in size (pg. 136)
Central ray angle for AP and posterior oblique views of C-Spine. 15-20 degrees cephalad to thyroid cartilage (C-4). (pg. 137)
Characteristics unique to thoracic vertebrae Bodies and transverse processes have articular facets for rib articulations (pg. 139)
Portion of the lumbar vertebra that creates "the neck of the scotty dog." Pars interarticularis (pg. 143)
Central ray angle for AP view of sacrum 15-25 degrees cephalic (pg. 143)
Central ray location for lateral view of sacrum CR perpendicular to a point 3 inches posterior to ASIS (pg. 143)
Central ray angle for AP view of coccyx 10-20 degrees caudal to a point 2 inches above pubic symphysis. (pg. 145)
The three divisions (from superior to inferior) of the sternum Manubrium, body, and xiphoid process (pg. 146)
Ribs that are considered "true" ribs 1-7. (pg. 146)
Patient position for PA sternum. 15-20 degree RAO (pg. 147)
Number of bones that compose the cranium 8 (pg. 148)
Number of facial bones 14 (pg. 148)
Point at which the sagittal and coronal sutures of the cranium meet Bregma (fetal anterior fontanel). (pg. 148)
Point at which the sagittal and lambdoidal sutures of the cranium meet. Lamda (fetal posterior fontanel). (pg. 148)
Bat shaped cranial bone Sphenoid bone (pg. 151)
Difference of degree between the OML and IOML 7 degrees (pg. 153)
Difference of degree between the OML and GML 8 degrees (pg. 153)
Name the cranial bones (1) frontal, (2) parietal, (2) temporal, (1) occipital, (1) ethmoid, and (1) sphenoid. (pg. 150)
Smallest facial bone Lacrimal (pg. 154)
Largest facial bone Mandible (pg. 154)
Central ray direction for PA axial skull (Caldwell) 15 degree caudad (from OML), directed to nasion (pg. 156)
Central ray direction for AP axial skull (Townes) 30 degree caudad to a point approximately 1.5 inches above glabella (from OML). (pg. 156)
Central ray location for a lateral skull CR perpendicular to a point 2 inches superior to EAM (pg. 156)
Central ray direction for a PA axial mandible 20-25 degree cephalad. (pg. 161)
Name the four paired paranasal sinuses Frontal, ethmoid, maxillary, and sphenoid. (pg. 162)
Largest sinuses Maxillary (pg. 162)
Breathing instructions for exposure of soft tissue neck images Slow nasal inspiration (pg. 165)
Components of respiratory system Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs (pg. 167)
Lower respiratory system. Trachea, bronchi, and lungs (pg. 167)
Level of the spine in which the carina of the bronchi is located. Approximately T-5 (pg. 168)
Aspirations are more common to occur in which bronchus? Right main bronchus. (pg. 168)
How many lobes does each lung have? Three lobes within the right lung, and two within the left lung. (pg. 168)
CR direction and angle for an AP axial (lordotic) chest exam. 15-20 degrees cephalad, to T-2. (pg. 171)
Accessory organs to the digestive system Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. (pg. 176)
Largest salivary gland. Parotid (pg. 176)
GI tract tissue layers (from inner to outer). Mucosa, submucosa, muscular, and serosa. (pg. 179)
Parts of the small intestine. Duodenum (9-12"), Jejunum (9 ft.), Ileum (13 ft.). (pg. 179)
Approximate length of the large intestine. 5-6 feet (pg. 179)
Contraindication for barium sulfate. GI perforation (pg. 186)
Functions of the urinary system Remove wastes from the blood, and eliminate it in the form of urine. (pg. 190)
Approximate spine level of the kidneys. Between vertebral levels of T12-L3. (pg. 190)
Which kidney sets lower than the other. The right kidney sets lower than the left due to presence of the liver. (pg. 190)
Amount of distance the kidneys shift inferior when a person's body is erect. 1-3" (pg. 190)
The three normal constrictions observed in the ureter. Ureteropelvic junction, pelvic brim, and the ureterovesicular junction. (pg. 190)
What type of KUB projection best demonstrates contrast filled ureters? PA Projection (pg. 195)
When should hysterosalpingograms be scheduled? Approximately 10 days after the start of menstruation, due to little chance of irradiating a newly fertilized ovum. (pg. 198-199)
Location of most disk ruptures of the spine. 90% occur at the level of L4-L5 and L5-S1 interspaces. (pg. 200)
Contraction phase of the heart muscle Systole (pg. 201)
Relaxation phase of the heart muscle Diastole (pg. 201)
Only veins in the body to carry oxygenated blood. Pulmonary veins (pg. 203)
Created by: jksmith1