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P Science Atom

Atom the basic particle of matter from which all other matter is constructed; smalles piece of matter that still retains the property of the element
Element pur stubstance that only contains one kind of atom (same number of protons)
Protons Location: nucleus, importance: determine the type of element
Neutrons location: nucleus, importance: stabilizes repulsive forces btwn p+ in the nucleus, outside the nucleus break down quickly
Electrons location: surrounds the nucleus (electron cloud), importance: responsible for all the chemical, physical, and magnetic properties of an atom
Quarks particles of matter that make up protons and neutrons; 6 different types have been discovered
Atomic number number of protons in the atom
Mass number number of protons and neutrons
Atomic mass actual mass of the atom (not the same as mass #, which considers e- mass insignificant)
Isotope atoms of an element with a different # neutrons
Mass #- atomic # # of neutrons
Energy levels electrons occupy these; each level has different potential energy (less energy closer to the nucleus and more farther from it)
Valence electrons electrons in the outermost level
Ground states most stable state; all e- in lowest possible levels
Radioactivity nuclear decay which happens when the strong force in the nucleus is not large enough to hold the nucleus together
Matter and energy what the nucleus gives off
Matter particles like protons, neutrons, and electrons
Energy electromagnetic waves (EM rays)
Radioactive atoms unstable nuclei; all nuclei with more than 83 protons
Fission breaking apart  large unstable nucleus splits into smaller more stable nuclei and more free neutrons and releases energy
Fusion putting together  two small nuclei combine to form one larger nucleus and releases energy
Gamma decay emits gamma rays and has electromagnetic waves
Alpha decay emits alpha particles and has 2 protons and 2 neutrons (similar to helium atom)
Beta decay emits beta particles and has 1st: 1 neutron – 1 proton and 2nd electron ejected
Fusion what kind of nuclear bombardment reaction occurs in the sun
Created by: Crayford