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Psychology 101 FINAL


****Decay theory of forgetting based on the commonsense assumption that memory, like all biological processes, decrades with time
****Interference theory of forgetting forgetting is caused by one memory completing with or trying to replace, another memory
****Retrieval failure theory of forgetting if you "blanked out" during exam and remembred "forgotten" info later
****Motivated theory of forgetting we forget for a reason
****Define and give an example of proactive interference old info interferes w/remembering new info, old info may interfere w/your ability to learn and remember your new college course in French
****Define and give an example of retroactive interference new info interferes w/remembering old info; learning new # causes forgetting of old
***How can you extend the CAPACITY of STM use chunking-grouping separate pieces of info into a single unit
*****How can you extend the DURATION of STM if you consciously and continuously repeat the info over and over again (maintenance rehearsal)
****What is long-term memory third stage of memory that stores info for long periods of time
****Give an example of hierarchies from the book. In which stage of memory are they used use of diagrams, tables and visual summaries will help to study for exam; long term memory
****What is sensory memory first memory stage that holds sensory info
****What is experiment carefully controlled scientific procedure that involves manipulation of variables to determine cause and effect
*****Give an example for encoding specificity principle you do better on a test when you take it in the same seat and classroom where you originally studied the material
****Elaborative rehearsal strategies expanding the info, actively exploring and questioning new info, trying to find meaningfullness
****What is shallow level of process and example we are only aware of basic incoming sensory info; you obtain a copy of names of students and just repeat them over and over
****What is deep level of process and example adding meaning, developing organizations and associations or relating it to things we already know; if you thought about each name and grouped all the names accordin to the 1st initial
****Give an example of chunking from the book expert chess players group the chess pieces into patterns that can be easily recalled
****Placebo Inactive substance or fake treatment used as a control technique, usually in drug research, or given by a medical pracitioner to a patient
****Correlational Research a type of research which studies two or more variables to find a relationship bw them
****Double-Blind study neither the participant nor the experimenter knows to which group the participant has been assigned
****Experimental Group the group that receives the independent variable
*****Control Group group that is treated identically to the experimental group, but doesnt receive the independent variable
*****Independent Variable the variable that is manipulated by the experimenter
*****Dependent Variable the observed variable measured by the experimenter
****Chunking grouping separate pieces of info into a single unit
***Elaborative Rehearsal necessary for storage in long-term memory in which info is actively reviewed and related to old info
****Maintenance Rehearsal Repeating info to maintain it in short-term memory
****Encoding specificity hypothesis memory is better when the conditions of recall are similar to conditions when info was learned
****Positive correlation 2 variables move into the same direction-increase or decrease together
*****Negative Correlation Two variables move in opposite directions as one factor increases, the other one decreases
****Hierarchies assists long-term memory by organizing info into general categories that are further divided and subdivided
****Serial Position Effect Remembering material at the beginning and end of a list better than the material in the middle
define psychology scientific study of behavior and mental processes
4 goals of psychology description, explanation, prediction, change
examples of 4 goals of psychology p 6
6 steps in scientific method ID questions of interest and review the literature; develop a testable hypothesis; select a research method; analyze data, publish, replenish view, build a theory
what is hypothesis specific prediction about how one variable relates to another
example of hypothesis p 16
see table 1.2 ch 1 (blank)
see figure 1.6 p 24 (blank)
experimenter bias occurs when researcher influences research results in the expected direction
participant bias occurs when experimental conditions influence the participants behavior or mental processes
how do placebo and double blind address the problems of experimenter and participant bias (blank)
sample bias occurs when research participants are not representative of the lager population EX?
sample a group of research participants selected to represent a population EX?
random assignment using chance methods to assign participants to experimental or control conditions, thus minimizing the possibility of biases or preexisting diferenes in the groups
define random/representative sampling p 28
what is population, EX? (blank)
case study in depth study of a single research participant EX?
naturalistic observation observation and recording of behavior in the participants natural state or habitat EX?
survey research technique that questions a large sample of people to assess their behaviors and attitudes EX?
informed consent participants aggreement to take a part in a study after being told what to expect
debriefing informng participants after research about the purpose of the study, the nature of the anticipated results and any deceptions used
when is deception used (blank)
what does debriefing mean (blank)
major emphasis of psychoanalytic perspective unconscious conflict
what types of statements are permitted by experimental methods experimental methodology-"one variable causes, affects or influences the other"
what types of statments are permitted descriptive/correlational methods "there is a relationship (non-causal) bw 2 variables. Cant say variable causes, affects or influences other variable; - can predict
defining characteristic of descriptive/correlational methodology simply observe variables
defining characteristic of experimental methodoly manipulate variables
major emphasis of the neuroscience/biopsychology perspective genetic and biological processes in the brain and nervous system
major emphasis of the cognitive perspective thoughts, perception, and info processing
major emphasis of the humanistic perspective human nature is naturally positive and growth seeking
major emphasis of behavioral perspective objective, observable environmental influences on overt behavior
3 stage model p 252
*What is the key to accurate storage and retrieval in LT memory (blank)
explicit/declarative memory, EX (blank)
semantic/episodic memory, EX (blank)
implicit/nondeclarative/procedural memory, EX (blank)
retrieval cue EX (blank)
recognition EX (blank)
recall EX (blank)
relearning EX (blank)
describe ebbinghaus' experiment and results (blank)
contrast mass (blank)
distributed practice (blank)
what is the same as cramming (blank)
what is long-term potentiation (blank)
what are 2 ways long-term potentiation can happen (blank)
do hormones affect memory, WHY (blank)
amnesia (blank)
causes of amnesia (blank)
know the procedure of the "barn" and staged crime" eyewitness studies (blank)
how do judges handle eyewitness testimony (blank)
what is confidence of eyewitness research subjects even when inaccurate (blank)
know specific tips on p 277-278 except memonic devices (blank)
Created by: kseniya
Popular Psychology sets




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