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Paradox Seemingly incompatible ideas. Clashes between Apparent truths
Paradox of Democracy People as citizens have many civil rights, but as employees of organizations they surrender those rights
Paradox of Needs Individuals and organizations need one another, but their respective needs are as likely to conflict as they are to coincide because people are dynamic and organic, whereas many organizations are static and mechanical
Civil Service Refers to branches of public service excluding legislative, judicial, or military, and in which positions are typically filled based on competitive examinations, professional career public service with protections against political influence and patronage
Civil service commission The governing body to oversee the civil service employment.
Civil service reform Efforts to modify the structures, processes, and functions of the civil service system, such as the Pendleton Act, the Civil Service Reform Act, and the New Public Management movement of the 90s
Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 Federal law replacing the Civil Service Commission with the US Office of Personnel Management and the US Merit Systems protection board. Also created the Federal Labor Relations Authority
Federal Labor Relations Authority The Federal administrative unit charged with overseeing, investigating, and enforcing rules pertaining to labor-management relations
Generation X Those born between 1960 and 1980
Human Resource Management Perspective that recognizes that human resources are important assets that must be managed strategically and proactively to improve organizational performance. Replaced Personnel management
Liberation management Reform tide with the goal of higher performance characterized by implementation strategies such as standards, evaluations, and outcomes.
Merit system A fair and orderly process for recruitment, promotion, rewards,and punishments on the basis of qualifications, performance, and competitive selection as judged by experts
National Partnership for Reinventing Government Initiative by the Clinton administration that sought to cut red tape, improve government performance, and hold public employees accountable for program results
New Millennials Those born after 1980
Pendleton Act of 1883 Established a system of open competition for government jobs via examinations, prohibiting firing of civil servants for partisan reasons, authorizing creation of a civil service commission
Personnel administration Series of activities - recruitment, compensation, discipline - directed at enhancing productivity of the people who work within an organization.
POSDCORB Acronym for planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordination, reporting, and budgeting. Originated by Fredrick Taylor during scientific management
Scientific Management A reform tide with the goal of efficiency, characterized by the use of implementation strategies such as structure, rules, and experts
Senior Executive Service Top-level administrators, mostly career civil servants and a lesser number of political appointees
Spoils System Type of patronage in which appointment of jobs is viewed as spoils of office to those active in the victorious campaign
Tides of reform Four reform philosophies: Scientific management, war on waste, watchful eye, and liberation management
US Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) Established by the civil service reform act of 1978 with responsibility to hear appeals from employees who allege that their rights under the civil service system laws and regulations have been violated
US Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Federal agency charged with the "doing" side of public human resource management - coordinating the federal government's personnel program.
War on waste Reform tide with the goal of economy, characterized with the use of implementation strategies such as generally accepted practices, audits, and investigations
Watchful Eye Reform tide with the goal of fairness, characterized by use of implementation strategies such as whistleblowers, interest groups, and media
Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 Law protecting federal employee whistleblowers from unfair retaliation, specifying burden-of-proof requirements regarding retaliation, and outlining appeals channels
Adverse Action Employer's sanction against an employee for unsatisfactory performance or misconduct
Affirmative Action Strategy that aims to overcome barriers to equal employment opportunities or remedy the effects of past discrimination
Age Discrimination and Unemployment Act Prohibits discrimination in employment based on age. Applies to workers 40 and older
Americans with Disabilities Act Prohibits discrimination in employment decisions based on disability and requires employers to provide reasonable accommodations.
At-will Employment Both employers and employees can sever their relations at a moment's notice
Civil Law System Law is based primarily on a code of laws that is applied by judges
Civil Rights Act of 1964 Prohibits employers from discriminating against employees in hiring, promotion, and termination decisions, based on their race, color, religion, national origin, or gender
Common-law system Law is developed primarily by decisions of courts rather than by codifications of legislatures or executive actions (US System)
Disparate Impact Theory of liability in which the plaintiffs claim that a facially neutral practice has a harmful effect on a class of employees characterized by a protected condition. Selection rate less than 80% of the majority group
Disparate Treatment Plaintiffs claim that adverse personnel actions are based on race, gender, or other protected conditions
Dress and Grooming Codes Employer standards for employee appearance including clothing, grooming, and body ornamentation.
Due Process Rights Pertains to public employees' right to a hearing when faced with adverse action
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Federal agency that processes complaints of discrimination and reviews affirmative action plans
Fair Labor Standards Act Basic federal statute that established the minimum wage and hours of work
Family and Medical Leave Act Provides eligible workers with up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave during any 12 month period for childbirth or adoption, for caregiving to a child, elderly parent, or spouse with a serious health condition, or for a personal illness
Free Speech Rights Rights that public employees have to speak out as citizens in matters of public debates. Do not protect them from adverse action when speaking out disrupts the efficiency of the workplace
Harassment Subjection of an employee to unwelcome conduct that is so severe and pervasive it creates a hostile work environment
Hatch Act of 1939 Law prohibiting political activities by public service employees. Some restrictions of this law were relaxed under the Federal Employees Political activities act of 1993
Hostile Environment Situation that results when an employee is subjected to severe and pervasive abuse at the workplace
Indirect Evidence Proof of actions taken by an employer that support an inference of unlawful bias against the employee in a discrimination or retaliation case
Official immunity Prevents government employees from being held individually liable for actions within the scope of their duty
Preemployment investigation Various procedures used to validate applicant-provided information and to otherwise determine the suitability of candidates
Race norming Practice of adjusting test scores of minority groups to ensure that a sufficient number of candidates can be hired. Disallowed by the Civil Rights Act of 1991
Reasonable accommodation Employer's obligation under the Americans with Disabilities Act to modify the workplace to make it possible for disabled persons to work there
Tangible Employment Action Significant change in an individual's employment status based on unwelcome sexual conduct.
Unemployment Compensation Mandatory federal-state insurance program created by law that is funded by employers through tax on payrolls. Must be unemployed through no fault of their own and actively seeking employment
Unreasonable Search Inspection by government officials that violates the Fourth Amendment to the US constitution
Whistleblower statutes Laws that protect employees who disclose wrongdoing by their employers from retaliation by their employers
Workers' Compensation Mandatory insurance program created by federal and state laws that is funded by employers. Workers injured on the job are compensated for medical bills and lost earnings. Workers give up their right to sue for negligence.
Electronic Posting Listing jobs on agency websites or websites exclusively dedicated to job seekers
Fast-track positions Positions that offer rapid career opportunities for training, management, exposure to a variety of techniques, and ultimately, promotion and increased salary levels
Human capital Productive human capabilities (KSA) that can be acquired and used to yield income and improved performance in the workplace
Individual vs. Pool Hiring Broad, entry-level classifications in moderately large organizations generally are filled with pool hiring. Other positions generally hire on an individual basis
Internal vs External Recruitment Whether recruitment and hiring is limited to organization members
Institutional Recruitment Similar to pool recruitment
Job (position) announcements Includes job title and agency or organization affiliation, salary range, description of the job duties and responsibilities, minimum qualifications, special conditions, application procedures, notice of EOO, and support for diversity
Job Posting Posting a job announcement in public places
Labor Market Survey Critical source of information about long-term staffing trends
Mail (and e-mail) recruitment Highly personalized approach in which individuals are encouraged by letter to apply for positions
Noncompetitive Recruitment Single official completes the hiring process with a formal comparison of candidates. Sometimes immediate hiring is allowed.
Personal contact recruitment When recruiters, managers, or search panel members attend job fairs, conduct on-campus recruiting, or personally contact top candidates for a position
Proceduralism Connotes processes that have become excessively detailed, complicated or impersonal
Recruitment Process Three major steps: planning and approval of the position, preparation of the position announcement. and selection and use of specific recruitment strategies
Recruitment Strategies Include posting, newspapers, trade journals, mail, other mass communications, personal contacts, internships, use of a third party, and noncompetitive
Staffing Incorporates both the recruitment and selection process
Succession Planning Organization's ability to replace its executive and senior management ranks with high-quality talent.
Assembled Tests When the selection process requires one or more tests in addition to experience and education such as a typing exam, psychological test, or work sample
Assessment Center Location where employees and job applicants take job-related tests and exercises in order to assess their skills, competencies, and character traits
Certified lists Lists of technically qualified individuals from whom a hiring authority may officially select
Character fit Generic work habits such as conscientiousness, motivation, initiative, resilience, service motivation. and self discipline. Also refers to the absence of dysfunctional behaviors
Diversity policies Employers' policies that promote an environment that allows all employees to contribute to organizational goals and experience personal growth, regardless of individual, ethnic, or other differences
Education and experience evaluations Includes application forms as well as requests for information about specific job competencies, which can be addressed in skill inventories, cover letters, and resumes
80% Rule Standard for determining discrimination: any selection process that results in qualification rates of protected groups that are less than 80% of the highest group
Electoral Popularity Basis for representative democracy. Selection method for major policy makers but ineffective for those who will fill administrative positions
General Skills tests Provides information about the abilities or aptitudes in areas such as reading, math, abstract thinking, spelling, language usage, general problem solving, judgement, proofreading, and memory
Internally based hiring When selection is limited to the agency or department, or sometimes the governmental body
Job fit Specific traits that lend themselves to particular jobs such as the ability to handle stress, assertiveness, friendliness, self-confidence, decisiveness, flexibility, etc
Letter of intent Confirms the offer of a specific position and may stipulate major work conditions such as starting date, salary, or hiring contingencies
Merit Selection Emphasis on technical qualifications using processes that analyze job competencies and require open application procedures
Patronage Selection decisions in which a single person is responsible for designating officials or employees without a requirement for a formalized application process. Related to the spoils system
Performance tests Directly assesses the skills necessary for specific jobs.
Psychological tests Examines the personality traits of the individual and compares them to the job requirements
Realistic Job interview Opportunity for the applicants to learn about both positive and negative aspects of a job
Representativeness Numerous categories such as geography, social class, gender, racial or ethnic group, prior military service, and disability
Rule of three States that people only hear things that have been said three times
Seniority Asserts that those already employed by the agency have already been through the merit process once, have been screened in probationary periods and evaluation processes, and have superior organizational insight and loyalty
Seniority-based selection Uses time in the hiring organization as a primary or exclusive factor for promotion
Social Class selection Generally illegal, though it does operate through proxies such as educational institutions and the subtle imposition of dominant-culture values on minorities
Structured Interview Interviews in which the questions are structured and refined in advanced
Temporary Employment employees without tenure rights and usually without benefits
Term Employees those without tenure rights but usually with full benefits
Test Validity Whether the test or instrument measures what it is supposed to measure
Unassembled Tests Selection process in which the initial selection is primarily based on education and experience evaluation
Work Samples When performance tests simulate actual aspects of the job
Authorized Salary Range The range of pay stipulated in the pay plan of the jurisdiction
Broadbanding When several pay grades are combined, creating a broader salary range fora position
Class series Refers to job classifications that are linked developmentally
Closed Personnel Systems Rank in person systems in which few opportunities exist for lateral entry for those outside the organization
Essential function The contemporary term for the major job duties of a position
External equity The comparison of the pay of employees with those performing similar jobs in other organizations
Individual equity Perceived fairness of individual pay decisions
Internal equity Comparison of what employees are paid doing similar jobs in an organization
Job analysis Systematic process of collecting data for determining the KSAs and other characteristics required to successfully perform a job and to make numerous judgments about a job
Job classification Clusters of individual positions with similar characteristics that are organized in groups for classification purposes
Job description written statements that describe or list the typical or average duties, levels of responsibility, and general competencies and requirements of a job classification
Job design Specification of job features, primarily the duties, the quantity of work expected, and the level of responsibility
Job duties The term most frequently used in the past to refer to the major functional responsibilities of a position
Job enlargement Increases the scope of a job by extending the range of job duties and responsibilities
Job enrichment Attempts to motivate employees by giving them more authority or independence for organizing their work and solving problems
Job evaluation Systematic determination of the value of each job in relation to others in an organization
Job rotation A means of developing employees at all levels so that they understand the "big picture" and become cross-trained
Job specialization Narrowing job responsibilities to just a few
Job tasks Elements of job duties
Lateral entry When non-entry-level positions can be filled from outside the organization
Occupational families The grouping of class series or postions that are not in a series into large clusters
Open Personnel System Typical in rank-in-job systems in which opportunities exist for lateral entry for those outside the organization.
Pay plan A pay schedule in which the grades, steps, and related pay is determined
personnel ceilings the maximum number of positions that may be budgeted by appropriation unit or for all positions in an organization
Piecemeal personnel system One that lacks grades or ranks and assigns salaries on an ad hoc basis.
Point factor method Starts with the assumption that factors should be broad enough to apply consistently to all jobs in an organization or schedule
Position The job of a single individual, as well as specific duties and responsibilities
Position classification system Provides grades or ranks for all merit positions as well as for non-merit positions
Position description Written statement that defines the exact duties, level of responsibility, and organizational placement of a single position
Position management system Generally refers to the allocation of positions for budgetary purposes
Privatization The shifting of public responsibilities for services or assets to the private sector
Process management Ensuring that the flow of work among individuals and units is as rational as possible
Process reengineering Ensuring that the flow of work among individuals and units is as rational as possible
Rank-in-job A personnel strategy in which rank and salary are determined by the job one holds
Rank-in-person A personnel strategy that emphasizes the development of incumbents over time within the organization through the use of closed systems and moving through ranks
Up-or-out philosophy Those who are not promoted in rank-in-person systems may eventually be forced to leave the organization
Whole job analysis Does not systematically break down a job into its constituent parts for purposes of grade and classification, but instead relies on past experience and intuition
Whole job evaluation Does not systematically break a job down into its constituent parts for purposes of compensation, but instead relies on past experience and intuition
Climate for motivation A relatively
Expectancy theory of motivation People show effort in the expectation that this will produce performance results and rewards.
Feedback Evaluative information given to employees about their performance or behavior; purpose is to influence future performance or behavior.
Hierarchy of needs Maslow: 1. Survival 2. Safety 3. Belonging 4. Self-Esteem 5. Actualization
Motivation The drive or energy that compels people to act, with energy and persistence, toward some goal.
Principle of Motivation A principle that states that people are motivated to pursue and satisfy their needs.
Psychological contract An unwritten understanding about mutual needs, goals, expectations, and procedures.
Strategy for feedback Series of specific activities through which feedback is given to workers in ways that enhance performance and which minimize demotivating effects.
Theory X People are inherently lazy, and therefore need a "stick-and-carrot" approach in order to be motivated.
Theory Y People are inherently motivated to learn and grow. The manager's job, therefore, is to provide developmental opportunities for workers.
25-50-25 Rule 25% highly motivated, 50% fence sitters, 25% "withdrawn and/or disinterested"
Direct Evidence In discrimination or retaliation cases: proof of statements made by the decision maker that show unlawful bias against the employee at the time of an adverse decision.
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (COBRA) Gives employees health insurance after termination
Created by: Curtlyn
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