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Polta test 2

QuestionAnswer
What is the largest and strongest tarsal bone? Calcaneus
Which bone in the foot is a common site for bone spurs? Calcaneus
How is the patient positioned for the Plantodorsal (axial) Calcaneus projection? Supine or seated with leg extended, foot dorsiflexed so plantar surface is perpendicular to IR.
What is the CR angle and placement for the Plantodorsal (axial) Calcaneus projection? 40 degrees cephalic @ the base of the 3rd metatarsal to emerge @ a level just distal to the lateral malleolus.
Is the lateral Calcaneus taken mediolaterally or lateromedially? Mediolaterally
Where is the CR placed for the lateral Calcaneous? Perpendicular to IR, 1 inch distal to the medial malleolus.
How is the patient positioned for the lateral Calcaneous? Recumbant on side of affected foot, foot dorsiflexed to 90 degrees.
What is the weight-bearing bone of the lower leg? Tibia
The articular facets of the proximal tibia are also referred to as what? Tibial plateau
The articular facets slope _________ degrees posteriorly. 10 - 15
The most proximal aspect of the fibula. Apex or styloid process.
The extreme distal end of the fibula forms what? The lateral malleolus.
What is the patient position for an AP tib/fib? Supine, pelvis, knee and leg in true AP position, no rotation, dorsiflex foot to 90 degrees if possible.
What is the CR placement for an AP tib/fib? Perpendicular to IR directed to midpoint of leg.
What is the SID for an AP tib/fib? 40 inches; may increase to 44 - 48 inches to include knee and ankle and increase mAs accordingly.
How might the IR be positioned in order to include both joints for an AP and lateral tib/fib? Diagonally.
What is the CR placement for an AP tib/fib? Perpendicular to the IR, directed to the midpoint of the leg.
How is the patient positioned for a lateral tib/fib? Recumbant laying on affected side, rotated so patella is perpendicular to the IR.
How is the patient positioned for an AP knee? Supine with leg fully extended, leg rotated 3-5 degrees internally.
Where is the CR positioned for an AP knee? 1/2 inch distal to the apex of the patella.
What is the CR angle for an AP knee? 5 degrees caudad an aesthenic patient, 0 degrees for sthenic, 5 degrees cephalic for hypersthenic.
What is the rotation for the medial and lateral obliques of the knee? 45 degrees
Which oblique of the knee will have the tibia and fibula proximal articulation open? Medial
Which oblique of the knee will have the fibula superimposed over the tibia? Lateral
What is the patient position for a lateral knee? Recumbant of affected side, affected knee bent 20-30 degrees (unaffected leg behind), knee in true lateral position.
What is the CR position and angle for a lateral knee? 1 inch distal to medial epichondyle and 5-7 degrees cephalic.
Which positioning error is present if the distal borders of the femoral condyles are not superimposed on a lateral knee? Improper angle of the CR
Which positioning error is present if the posterior portions of the femoral condyles are not superimposed on a lateral knee? Over or under-rotation of the knee
What are the two PA Axial projections for the intercondylar fossa of the knee (tunnel views)? Camp-Coventry and Holmblad
What is the patient position for the Camp-Coventry method? Prone, lower leg flexed 40 degrees.
What is the CR angle and placement for the Camp-Coventry method? Perpendicular to long axis of the lower leg, centered to the mid-popliteal crease.
What is the patient position for the Holblad method? On knees, 20-30 degrees from vertical.
What is the CR placement for the Holmblad method? CR perpendicular to IR, centered to mid-popliteal crease.
What is the AP axial projection for the intercondylar fossa of the knee (tunnel view)? Beclere method.
What is the patient position for the Beclere method? Supine, knee flexed 60 degrees.
What is the CR placement for the Beclere method? CR perpendicular to the lower leg, 1/2 inch distal to the apex of the patella.
What is the patient position for the PA patella? Prone with leg extended.
What is the CR placement for the PA patella? perpendicular to the mid-patella @ the popliteal crease.
What is the patient position for the lateral patella? Recumbant on affected side, flex knee 5-10 degrees, true lateral.
What is the CR placement for the lateral patella? Perpendicular to the patello-femoral joint space.
What are the 4 tangential projections for the patella? Merchant bilateral method, Inferosuperior projection (sunrise), Hughston projection, Settegast projection.
How much are the knees flexed for the Merchant bilateral method? 40 degrees.
What is the angle and placement for the CR on the Merchant bilateral method? Angled 30 degrees from horizontal, midway between patellae.
What is the patient position for the inferosuperior tangential projection (sunrise) of the patellae? Patient supine, knees flexed 40-45 degrees.
What is the CR angle and placement for the sunrise view? CR is 10-15 degrees to lower leg, tangential to femoropatellar joint and perpendicular to IR.
What is the patient position for the Hughston projection? Patient prone, with knee flexed 50-60 degrees from horizontal.
What is the CR angle and placement for the Hughston projection? Angle tube 45 degrees, 15-20 degrees to lower leg and tangential to femeropatellar joint.
What is the patient position for the Settegast projection? Patient prone, knee flexed 90 degrees.
What is the angle and placement for the CR for the Settegast projection? CR is 15-20 degrees to the lower leg and tangential to the femeropatellar joint.
What is the patient position for the AP distal femur? Patient supine, leg rotated medially 5 degrees for a true AP knee.
What is the patient position for the AP proximal femur? Patient supine, leg rotated 15 degrees medially so long axis of femoral neck is parallel to IR.
How much should the knee be flexed for the lateral distal and proximal femur? 45 degrees.
What is the patient position for the AP pelvis? Supine, arms on upper chest, legs rotated internally 15 degrees.
What is the CR placement for an AP pelvis? Midway between ASIS and symphysis pubis, or about 2 inches below ASIS at the midsagittal plane. Top of upper border should be about 1-1-1/2 inches above the Iliac Crest.
What is the patient position for the AP bilateral "frog leg" Modified Cleaves method? Patient supine, arms on upper chest, Femora abducted 40 - 45 degrees.
What is the CR placement for the modified Cleaves method (bilateral frog leg) Perpendicular to IR, approximately 3 inches below the level of the ASIS
What is the CR angle and placement for the AP axial outlet projection (Taylor Method)? Males: 20-30 degrees cephalic, Females: 30-45 degrees cephalic, 1-2 inches distal to the symphysis pubis.
What is the CR placement and angle for the AP axial Inlet projection? 40 degrees caudad at the level of the ASIS.
What is the patient position and obliquity for the Posterior Oblique - Acetabulum projections (Judet method)? 45 degrees, both RPO and LPO.
What is the central ray placement for the Judet Method? 2 inches distal and medial to downside ASIS, 2 inches distal to upside ASIS.
What is the patient position for the AP Hip? Supine, arms across upper chest, affected leg rotated internally 15 - 20 degrees.
What is the CR placement for an AP hip? 4 inches distal and 1 inch medial to ASIS, perpendicular to femoral neck.
What is the patient position for the unilateral "frog leg" position (modified Cleaves method)? Supine, flex knee and hip on affected side so sole of foot is against inside of opposite leg at the knee, abduct femur 45 degrees (or more) from vertical.
Where is the CR placement for the unilateral "frog leg" position? perpendicular to the IR at the mid femoral neck.
The "cross table" hip is also known as the ___________________ method. Danelius-Miller
Created by: 1314500233