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Positioning Ch 18

Urinary System

What are the functions of the kidneys? 1.)removing waste products from the blood; 2.) maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance 3.) secreting substances that affect blood pressure
Amount of urine excreted daily? 1-2 liters
What is secreted by the suprarenal glands? Epinephrine and Cortical Hormones
Which kidney is longer? Left
Which kidney is lower in the abdomen? Right
Which kidney is more narrow? Left
For which body habitus will the kidneys lie at the highest level? Hypersthenic
Approximately how much do the kidneys drop from supine to upright? 2 inches
What is the essential microscopic, functional component of renal parenchyma? Nephron
The cluster of blood capillaries contained within the capsule of a nephron is called the: Glomerulus
What serves as the filter for the blood in the kidney? Glomerulus
The cup-shaped recesses in the center of each kidney that receive the urine from the collecting ducts are called the: Calyces
Where do the ureters lie in relation to the peritoneum? Behind the peritoneum
What serves as a reservoir for the urine? Urinary Bladder
The adult bladder can hold how much urine? 500 mL
Where do the ureters enter the bladder? Posterior Wall
The point at which the ureters enter the bladder is called: Ureterovesical Junction
How long is the female urethra? 1 1/2 inches
The technique of injecting contrast media into a vein and taking radiographs of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder is termed: Intravenous Urography (IVU)
In some radiography procedures involving the urinary system, the contrast medium is introduced against the normal flow. This is termed: Retrograde
A radiographic examination of the urinary bladder is termed: Cystography
For which anatomical areas is the retrograde technique used? 1)Bladder; 2)Lower Ureters; 3)Urethra
The concentration of iodine in ionic contrast media is: 50-70%
What is true about nonionic contrast agents? 1)Less likely to cause a reaction; 2)more expensive
The common reactions to contrast media include: Warmth and Flushing
Significant reactions to contrast media include: 1)Nausea; 2)Vomiting; 3)Edema of respiratory mucous membrane
Nearly all life-threatening reactions to contrast media occur immediately or within ______ minutes after injection. 20 minutes
Preparation of the patient for an IVU includes: 1)Light evening meal; 2)Non-gas forming laxative; 3)NPO after midnight
The exposure technique used for an IVU should have sufficient contrast and density to clearly demonstrate the: 1)Outline of the kidneys; 2)lower border of the liver; 3)Lateral margin of the psoas muscles
Where is the compression applied during an IVU? Distal end of ureters
Compression should not be used during an IVU if the patient has: 1)an aneurysm 2)Colostomy
The respiration phase for all exposures made during an IVU is: Expiration
Contraindications for intravenous urography include: 1)Anuria; 2)Renal failure
Within how many minutes does contrast medium appear in the pelvicalyceal system? 2 to 8 minutes
How much is the patient rotated from the supine for an AP oblique projections of the urinary system? 30 degrees
What plane is centered to the grid for a lateral projection of the urinary system? Mid-Coronal Plane
What position is commonly used to demonstrate the ureteropelvic junction? Dorsal Decubitus
What is true regarding retrograde urography? (3) 1)Ureters must be catheterized 2)Provides little physiologic information 3)Contrast injected directly into pelvicalyceal system.
What technique is used to get contrast directly into the urinary bladder for cystogram? Retrograde filling technique
What projections are used for a cystogram? AP / AP Oblique / Lateral
What size IR and which position is used for examination of the urinary bladder (cystogram)? 10 x 12 Lengthwise (24 x 30cm)
Where is the IR centered for an AP axial projection of the urinary bladder (cystogram)? 2 inches above the upper border of the symphysis pubis
How much is the body rotated for the AP oblique projection of the urinary bladder during a cystogram? 40 to 60 degrees
What plane is centered to the grid for a lateral projection during a cystogram? Midcoronal plane
What is the essential projection used for a cystourethrogram on a male patient? AP Oblique
Where is the IR centered for the AP oblique projection during a male or female cystourethrogram? Superior border of the pubic symphysis
How much is the body rotated for the AP oblique projection during a male or female cystourethrogram? 35 to 40 Degrees
How is the central ray positioned to free the bladder neck of superimposition during a female cystourethrogram? 5 degrees caudad
The urinary system includes: 2 Kidneys 2 Ureters 1 Urethra
Where do the 2 kidneys lie? Behind the peritoneum
The concave medial border of the kidney where the blood vessels and ureter exit is called the: The Hilum
The mucosal folds on the inside of the urinary bladder are called: Rugae
The abbreviation for the excretory technique of urography is: IVU
The radiographic examination of the urethra is called: Cystourethrogram
The center of the compression device that is placed over the lower ureters during intravenous urography is positioned where? Level of the ASIS
What projection is used to demonstrate the mobility of the kidneys during an IVU? AP Erect
Which projection would place the right kidney perpendicular to the IR? AP Oblique RPO
What position may be helpful to demonstrate the lower ureters: Trendelenburg's 15-20 degrees
What is the respiration phase for an IVU? Expiration
Which examination is considered an operative examination? Retrograde Urography
What is the central-ray angulation for the AP axial urinary bladder? 10 to 15 degrees Caudad (centered 2" above upper border of symphysis)
What is the central ray angulation for the PA Axial projection of the urinary bladder? 10 to 15 degrees Cephalad
The radiologic technologist may initiate venipuncture and administer medications on the order of: Any physician
Before venipuncture is performed, the radiologic technologist must assess what? 1)Allergic reaction to iodine tincture 2)Adverse reaction to medication being used
Guidelines from which organizations must be adhered to with regard to venipuncture administration? 1)ASRT 2)State agencies 3)Institution
What is true regarding the use of needles during venipuncture? The needle may only be used once.
IV medications are administered to which body system? Venous System
The vessels most often used for venipuncture are where? Posterior Hand & Anterior Forearm
The antiseptic used to cleanse the skin before venipuncture should remain on the skin for how long? 30 seconds
Before venipuncture the skin is cleaned in what kind of motion and how large of an area? Circular motion; 2" area
During venipuncture, how far above the site of the puncture is the tourniquet placed? 6 to 8 inches
What is the angle of the needle to the skin's surface during venipuncture? 45 degrees
After the needle enters the skin during venipuncture, the angle of the needle is reduced how many degrees to the long axis of the vessel? 15 degrees
When blood or the medication injected into a vessel leaks out, it is called: Extravasation or infiltration
Which of the following would indicate that contrast medium has infiltrated the surrounding vessels? Swelling, Burning, pain and redness (not discoloration)
What is the most common cause of contrast medium leaking out of a vessel and infiltrating the surrounding tissues? Needle displacement
What therapies would be applied if contrast medium infiltrates the surrounding tissues? 1)Application of ice if under 30 minutes 2)Apply warm compress if over 30 minutes
Mild reactions to IV contrast? Warmth, metallic taste or sneezing
Moderate reactions to IV contrast? Nausea, vomiting or itching
Severe reactions to IV contrast? Anaphylactic reaction resulting in respiratory or cardiac crisis
What is the best overall index of kidney function? GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate)
Normal creatinine level? 0.6 to 1.2 mg/100 mL
Normal GFR level? 120 to 125 mL/minute
What GFR level would indicate renal dysfunction? 90 mL/minute or less
The series of radiographs made during an IVU examination are typically done at time intervals between: 3 and 20 minutes
What is true regarding positioning of the abdomen for a lateral projection of the urinary system? The midcoronal plane is centered to the grid
How many minutes after injection does the greatest concentration of contrast medium appear in the kidneys? 15 to 20 minutes
Where is the IR centered for all abdominal radiographs taken during examinations of the urinary system? Iliac Crests
what must be available during an IVU? Radiologist and Crash Cart (emergency cart)
The vessels that carry blood into the glomerulus are the _______________ arterioles and vessels that carry blood out of the glomerulus are the ___________ arterioles. In=Afferent; Exit=Efferent
Approximately how many will experience anaphylaxis during administration of contrast media? 1 in 14,000
Created by: foster1317
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