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SOP3004C Modules 1-7

Key Concepts for Chapters 1-7 to study for Mid-Term

According to the text, social psychology is defined as the scientific study of how people think about, influence and relate to one another.
According to the text, social psychology is a(n) _____ science, and one that only began to emerge as a vibrant field after _____. young; World War II
Myers points out that our social behavior is shaped by other people, our attitudes and personality, and our biology.
Hastrof & Cantrol (1954) found that Princeton students identified twice as many Dartmouth violations as Dartmouth students did when each watched the game. This emphasizes humans' tendency to prejudge reality based on expectations.
Another name for the "I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon" is the hindsight bias.
The study of naturally occurring relationships among variables is referred to as correlational research.
In order to determine whether or not changing one variable (such as education) will produce changes in another (such as income), one needs to conduct _______ research. experimental
Variable X is correlated with Variable Y. Which of the following could explain this correlation? All of these are possible explanations. (Y causes X; A third variable causes or influences both X and Y; X causes Y. )
The habit of using how we imagine another person perceiving us, as a mirror for perceiving ourselves, is referred to as the looking-glass self.
You attend a self-help discussion group, where the leader is encouraging people to think of themselves as the writers, directors, and actors of their own lives. The group leader is hoping people will adopt a(n) _______ locus of control. internal
Dana was really shocked when her candidate was not elected. She had assumed that everyone felt as she did and supported her candidate's ideas. This is an example of the false consensus effect.
The extent to which we evaluate our abilities and opinions by comparing ourselves to others is called social comparison.
Assuming that everyone else is staring at the pimple on your chin is an example of the spotlight effect
You are more likely to be satisfied with your selection of soda, purchased from the vending machine, if you are presented with _______ options rather than if you are presented with _______ options. a few; many
Kitayama and Markus (2000) found that, for American students, happiness comes from feeling effective, superior and proud.
When we compare ourselves with others, most of us tend to see ourselves as better than the average person.
The self-reference effect refers to the tendency to quickly process and remember well the information that is relevant to our self-concepts.
You have tried to study for an exam with flashcards, with a friend, and with your notes - all to no avail. You begin to feel that you should give up, as whatever you do does not seem to help your exam scores. According to Myers, you may have symptoms learned helplessness.
The theory that explains people's behavior by attributing it to internal dispositions or external situations is called attribution theory.
The tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences on other people's behavior is called the fundamental attribution error.
Despite reading numerous research studies that report the association of fast food consumption with heart disease and diabetes, Rachel continues to eat fast food and thinks that it is harmless. Rachel's thinking is an example of belief perseverance.
The tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs is called the overconfidence phenomenon.
When we are eager to seek information that verifies our beliefs but less inclined to seek evidence that might disprove our beliefs, the _______ has occurred. confirmation bias
Which of the following is a thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgments? a heuristic
The perception of a relationship where none actually exists, or the perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists, is called an illusory correlation.
A belief that leads to its own fulfillment is called a self-fulfilling prophecy.
"Emotional Contagion" can explain why you always feel _______ after being with a consistently upbeat friend. happy
Which theory predicts that when people experience a self-image threat, they will compensate by affirming another aspect of the self? self-affirmation theory
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later to a larger request is called the _______ phenomenon. foot-in-the-door
According to the overjustification effect, promising children a reward for doing what they already intrinsically enjoy will lead to less enjoyment of the activity .
Which theory assumes that we observe our actions for clues about our own attitudes and beliefs? self-perception
Which of the following is NOT one of the theories presented in the text as an explanation for why attitudes follow behavior? self-consistency theory
In 1969, social psychologist Allan Wicker completed a review of dozens of research studies and concluded that people's expressed attitudes _______ predicted their varying behaviors. hardly ever
According to research, which of the following methods would be the most productive way to change your behavior in some important way? perform the desired behavior
According to the text, what term best describes the relationship between biology and culture? interaction
The term gender role refers to a set of behavior expectations for males or females.
Consistent with evolutionary psychology's explanation of gender differences, Roney (2003) found that teen males reported _______ as most important if left alone in a room with a teen female. having lots of money
One dramatic finding from developmental psychology (Plomin & Daniles, 1987) is that two children in the same family are, on average, as different from one another as two children selected at random.
One of the most important similarities in humans is our capacity to learn and adapt.
The copycat suicide phenomenon is most likely to occur in places where the suicide story is publicized.
Milgram's studies explored _______; Asch's studies explored _______. obedience; conformity
A concern for _______ produces normative influence, while a concern for _______ produces informational influence. social image; being correct.
After President Bush announced his position regarding a possible war with Iraq, he was unlikely to change his mind. This most likely reflects the fact that public commitment reduces susceptibility to social influence.
High school students Aisha and Jared have been dating each other casually. When her parents tell her to stop seeing Jared to go out with "nicer boys," she announces that they are "in love" and decided to go steady. Her behavior illustrates the effects of psychological reactance.
Abelson and his colleagues (1982) found that voting preferences in the United States could be reasonably predicted from voters emotional reactions to the candidates.
Kiesler (1971) recommended that one way to stimulate people’s thinking so that they become more committed to their positions is to mildly attack their position.
The _____ route to persuasion occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness. peripheral
Werner and her colleagues (2002) conducted a study on aluminum can recycling at the University of Utah and found that the most effective message was a two-sided one.
When an initially discounted message becomes effective, a delayed impact of the message occurs. This is called the _______ effect. sleeper
Created by: Jouyo
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