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GRE Psych

Kurt Lewin developed theory of association; grouping things together based on the fact tha they occur together in time and space. Pavlov proved it.
Higher-order conditioning a previous CS becomes an UCS for another NS
Forward/Backward conditioning Forward = CS is presented before the UCS; Backward = CS is presented after the UCS
primary drive instinctual drives such as hunger or thirst
secondary drive acquired drives, such as money or learned reinforcers
Fritz Heider balance theory
Balance theory developed by Fritz Heider, a theory of motivation where we need to obtain psychological balance
Charles Osgood and Perry Tannenbaum Congruity theory, a theory of motivation similar to balance theory and revolves around maintaining homeostasis
Leon Festinger cognitive dissonance theory
Clark Hull proposed performance = drive X habit
Edward Tolman proposed performace = expectation X value, also known as expectancy-value theory
expectancy-value theory performance = expectaition X value, people are motivated by goals that they think they will meet combined with the value of the event
Victor Vroom applied expectancy-value theory to organization psych - the lower you are in the totem pole, the less likely you are to perceive value
Henry Murray and David McClelland need for achievement (nAch)
Need for achievement (nAch) the idea that we are motivated to be most successful, either through gaining success or avoiding failure
John Atkinson furthered nAch by saying that those that feel pride in work use small goals with intermediate risks. They feel accomplished and seek success more than fear failure.
Neil Miller approach and avoidance conflict
Premack Principle the idea of rewarding an undesired event with a desired event (i.e. dessert after eating spinach)
Donald Hebb Intermediate levels of arousal are optimal for motivation, too much or too little hamper results
Yerkes-Dodson effect optimal arousal is an upside-down U (extremes don't help)
response learning linking a series of stimuli and responses
chaining linking together a series of stimili and behaviors to approximatethe desired behavior
autoshaping when an apparatus allows a subject to reinforc their own behaviors, such as bar pressing
John Garcia genetic preparedness for learning, esp. nausea
Garcia effect the quick asociation between nausea and food
M. E. Olds used direcct stimulation to reward centers in brain for animals to self-stimulate; evidence against drive-reduction theory
Continuous v. Discrete learning motor tasks are better if one task leads directly to another (like riding a bike) than if discrete
Positive transfer when old learning makes it easier to perform new learning
Negative transfer when old learning makes it harder to perform new learning
Hermann Ebbinghaus Forgetting and learning curve (learning changes acceleration over time, slow, quick slow)
Phoneme discrete sounds in language that carry no meaning
Morpheme the smallest possible group of phonemes that form meaning (boy, ing)
Morphology (morphological rules) grammar
Prosody aspects of pronunciation that carry meaning (tone, inflection, accents, etc.)
Noam Chomsky transformational grammar, surface structure, language acquisition device (LAD)
transformational grammar theory of Noam Chomsky, differentiates between surface structure and deep structure in language
surface structure how words are organized on the surface in an expression
deep structure the true meaning of an expression
overregulation linguistic error made by learners of a new language when they overapply a rule (sheeps)
overextension generalizing the name for things
telegraphic speech speech without articles or extras, such as "me go"
who learns language faster? girls/boys girls
acquisition milestones 1 year - 1st words; 2 year - < 50 words in 2-3 word sentences; 3 yrs - 1000 word vocab w/ many errors; 4 yrs - grammar are rare excpetions
Robert Brown theory of children's linguistic acquisition = children make hypotheses about syntax and self-correct with experience
Katherine Nelson language really acquires with active speech, and not just with passive listening
William Labov ebonics
Lev Vygotsky word meanings are complex and altered by life experiences, worked with Alexander Luria
Alexander Luria word meanings are complex and altered by life experiences, worked with Lev Vygotsky
Charles Osgood used plots and graphs (semantic differential charts) which allowed subjects to plot word meanings - ppl w/similar backgrounds and itnerests have similar plots (connotation)
iconic memory sensory memory for vision
George Sperling studied iconic memory; partial reports of a line of flashed texts show that we see mroe than we remember
Ulric Neisser coined the term icon for a single brief visual memory; worked with backward masking
backward masking when an image or sound is presented before the previous one exits the sensory memory; this is more effective if it is similar to the original image/sound
echoic memory the sensory memory of the auditory system
Short term memory is mostly auditory and phonological
proactive interference disrupting stimli that occur before the new item is presented
proactive inhibition the difficulty in remembering a new item due to proactive interference
retroactive interference disrupting stimuli that occur after the new item is presented
retroactive inhibition the difficulty in remembering a new item due to retroactive interference
Savings measure of LTM with a comparison of the time it takes to learn information the second time
encoding specificity principle a subject is more likley to recall information in the same context in which it was learned
semantic memory general knowledge of the world; impersonal facts
declarative memory factual knowledge with two types: semantic and episodic
Frederick Bartlett reconstructive memory
Reconstructive memory studied by Frederick Bartlett, ideas and semandics of the story are better recalled than details or grammar of story
Allan paivio dual-code hypothesis of memory
Dual-code hypothesis of memory ideas are better recalled if icons/images are combined with semantic memory
Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart depth of processing for memory
Karl Lashley memories are stored diffusely in the brain
Donald Hebb memory involves changes at the synapes "memory tree"
E. R. Kandel studied the Aplysia sea slug and young chicks to show physical changes in the neurons with memory
Brenda Milner patient "HM" with lesion to the hippocampus and could not create new long-term memories
Serial learning memorizing lists of info, subject to the primacy and the recency effect
serial-anticipation learning memorized list of info where the subject needs to only recall the next set of info
paired-association learning learning one thing in association with another, such as foreign language vocabulary
free recall learning remembering lists of information in any order
factors of improving memory acoustic dissimilarity, semantic dissimilarity, brevity, familiarity, concreteness, meaning, importance to the subject
decay / trace theory memories fade with time - too simplistic
interference theory competing information blocks retrieval
generation-recognition states that recognition will always be easier than recall
eidetic memory photographic memory
tachtiscope flashes images for fractions of an inch
Zeigarnik effect tendency to recall uncompleted tasks better than completed tasks
concept the representation of the relationship between two things (i.e. concepts of bird - wings and flies)
mental set preconceived notions of how to approach a problem
script idea of how events typically unfold
prototypes the representative or stereotypical example (scientists are good at math)
J. P. Guilford defined convergent and divergent thinking
convergent thinking taking many items to create a single solution
divergent thinking taking one item and making multiple possible solutions
functional fixedness closed mindedness about the use of an object
problem space the sum total of all the possible moves that one could possibly take in order to solve a problem
mediation the intervening mental steps between stimulus and response, reminding us how to respond or previous experience
Allen Newell and Herbert Simon created artificial intelligence, called computer simulation models, to mirror human thinking and problem solving
logic theorist first artificial computer simulation model by Allen Newel and Herbert Simon
general problem solver updated artificial simulation model by Allen Newel and Herbert Simon
deductive reasoning leads to a specific conclusion from the information given
inductive reasoning leads to general rules inferred from specific details
atmosphere effect when a conclusion is influenced by the way information is phrased
semantic effect making conclusions based on what is thought to be correct instead of what logically follow from information given
Elizabeth Loftus, Allan Collins, Ross Quillan discovere semantic heirarchy that proved that related words are processed faster (canary is a bird = true is faster than toaster is a bird = false
which processes memory faster, pictures or words? words
bottom-up processing taking pieces, esp data, to form an item or recognize a pattern
top-down processing taking overall concepts and creating individual ideas
saccade an eye movement from one fixed point to another, esp when reading or gazing
James-Lange theory of emotion bodily reactions cause emotion
Cannon-bard theory of emotion bodily sensations and emotional attributions happen simultaneously
Schacter-Singer Theory of Emotion similar to James-Lange theory, where we feel bodily reactions, and then we must think about them and attribute before we know how we feel
receptive field the part of the world that triggers a particular neuron
sensory transduction the process in which physical sensation is changed into electrical messages
nativist theory perception and cognition are laregely innate
structuralist theory bottom-up processing, perception is the sum total of all sensory imput
James Gibson perceptional development in the ability to make finer discriminations among stimuli
ciliary muscles the muscles that allow the lens to focus on an image
Ewald Hering opponent-process theory of vision/coloor perception
Thomas Young and Hermann von Hemholtz tri-color theory / component theory
lateral inhibition allows for contrast, when a receptor cell is stimulated, the nearby cells are inhibited
David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel discovered the specialization in the visual cortex (some respond to vertical lines, some horizontal lines, right angles, etc.
Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk visual cliff
McCollough effect aka after images, due to fatigued receptors that are overshadowed by opponent-processes
Pragnanz Gestalt idea that experience will be organized as meaningful, symmetrical, and simple whenever possible (this is how Gestalt explains how we make order out of chaotic images
phi phenomenon the tendency to perceive smooth motion where there is none (apparent motion - animation)
Muller-Lyer Illusion equal lines with wings
Ponzo illusion equal lines between converging lines
autokinetic effect a single point of light in darkness appears to shake and move, due to the movement of our eyes w/o any reference points with which to adjust
Purkinje shift the perception of color brightness changes with illumination. Red especially appears less bright in low illumination
Prosopagnosia inability to recognize faces
Robert Fanz studied infant pattern preferences (complex yet sensical)
E. H. Weber coined the term "differential threshold" (just noticeable difference)
Weber's Law a stimulus needs to be increased by a constant fraction of its original value in order for an organism to perceive a difference
Fechner's Law a refinement of Weber's law - the just noticeable difference increases logrithmically
Signal Detection Theory Developed by J. A. Swet, perception cannot be mathematically determined due to response bias (motivation). Response bias and signal strength determines perception
Amplitude determines intensity/loudness
Frequency pitch
Pinna the fleshy part of the ear
Ossicles three inner-ear bones: malleus, incus, stapes (hammer, anvil, stirrup)
basilar membrane membrane of the ear that are stimulated by the flow of cochlear fluid to hear
Hermann von Hemholtz discovered that different places of the cochlea are responsible for different tones
sound localization high pitched sounds are located byintensity differences, low-pitched sounds are located by phase differences
dichotic presentation experiments where different sounds are placed in each ear, used to studey auditory perception and selective attention
papillae taste buds
free nerve endings sense pain and temperature changes in skin
Meissner's corpuscles skin sensors for touch or contact
Pacinian corpuscles touch receptors for displacement of skin
physiological zero the temperature that is neither cold nor hot
Robert Mezack and Patrick Wall developed gate-control theory
Proprioception the ability to tell the positioning of the body
Osmoreceptors sense thirst
Myelencephalon medulla; reflexes, sleep, attention, movement
metencephalon the pons and cerebellum
medulla reflexes, sleep, attention, movement
pons connects the brain to the spinal cord
reticular formation considered oldest part of the brain; responsible for a;ertness, thirst, sleep, involuntary muscles
mesencephalon midbrain
tectum controls vision and hearing, part of the midbrain/mesencephalon
tegmentum the top of the reticular formation, part of the midbrain/mesencephalon, deals withsensorimotor system and is effected by opiates
diencephalon part of forebrain, contains the thalamas and the hypothalamus
thalamus channels sensory information
hypothalamus ANS response; hunger and thirst; also houses the pituitary gland
telencephalon everything in the forebrain except the cerebral cortex and the diencephalon; includes the limbic system, hippocampus. amygdala, cingulate gyrus
limbic system group of structures for the four F's (fleeing, fighting, feeding)
cingulate gyrus links areas in brain for emotion and decisions
gyrus bump in the brain
sulcus fissure in the brain
meninges tough connective tissues that cover and protect the brain
superior colliculus visual reflexes
inferior colliculus auditory reflexes
basal ganglia controls large, voluntary muscles, linked to Parkinson's and Huntington's
apraxia can't organized particular movements
agnosia difficulty processing particular sensory information
aphasia language disorder, likely in Broca or Wernicke
alexia inability to read
agraphia inability to write
Broca's area controls very fine motor movements, such as the lips and tongue to form words
Wernicke's area controls the sensical choice of words
Hyperphagia overeating without satiation
sham rage easily provoked rage due to removal / lesion of the cerebral cortex; in animals it tends to be removal; in humans it can be hypothalamic lesion or discharge
ogliodendrocytes provide / create myelin in the CNS
schwann cells provide / create myelin in the PNS
monoamines serotonin and dopamine
glutamate most abundant excitatory transmiter
GABA most abundant inhibitaory transmitter
Neuromodulators neurotransmitters that cause long-term changes in the postsynaptic cell
H-Y antigen turns a fetus into a male
hormones for menstration estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
vasopressin regulates water levels and therefore regulates blood pressure
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is a stress hormone that increases the production of androgens and cortisol
Stage 0 sleep drowsy, neural synchrony
Stage 1 sleep irregular alpha waves w/ myoclonic jerks and eye rolling
Stage 2 sleep theta waves w/ sleep spindles, muscle tension, decrease in heart rate, respiration, and temperature
Stage 3 sleep decrease of sleep spindles and replacement with delta waves up to 50% of the time
Stage 4 sleep delata waves more than 50% of the time, growth hormones are secreted
beta waves REM, neural desynchrony, paradoxical sleep
rebound effect subjects dprived of REM sleep will spend more time in REM the next night
Konrad Lorenz founder of ethology, studied imprinting, animal aggressoin (he thought it was instinctual and based on survival), releasing stimuli, and fixed action patterns
Ethology study ofanimal behavior
releasing stimuli aka releasers or sign stimuli, one individualof aspecies elicits an automatic, instinctual chain of behaviors from another individual in the same species
fixed action patterns requirements: performed by most members of the species, uniform, complex, cannot be interrupted
Nikolaas Tinbergen shared Nobel with Lorenz, did experiments with stickleback fish (red bellies in spring were a releasing stimuli for fighting) and herring gull chicks (red spot on bill are releasing stimuli for ecking in order to get regurgitated food)
supernormal sign stimulus artificial stimuli that exaggerate the naturally occuring sign stimulus or receiver
Karl von Frisch discovered the honeybee dance
Walter Cannon coined "fight or flight", proposed homeostasis hypothesis
Haploid a gamete that has half of the chromosomes of an organism
Diploid cells that have pairs of chromosomes
displacement activities aka irrelevant behaviors, behaviors that have no particular survival function
estrus sexually receptive period in animals, "in heat"
instinctual drift the replacement of trained or learned behaviors with instinctive/natural behaviors
four reproductive isolating mechanisms 1) behavioral isolation 2) goegraphic isolation 3) mechanical isolation 4) seasonal isolation
sexual dimorphism structural differences between sexes
bee navigation circle dance = food close, waggle = far, angle off vertical = angle from sun, landmarks, magnetic fields, sun and polarized light are navigational aides
bird navigation atmospheric pressure, infrasound (low frequency), magnetic sense, sun compas, star compass, polarized light
Wolfgang Kohler used chimpazees to study insight
R. C. Tyron bred maze bright and maze dull rats
R, M Cooper and John Zubek Challenged R. C. Tyron's experiment; maze bright rats only did better in normal conditions. In enriched environments, both did well. In poor environments, both did poorly
cross fostering experiments seperating sibling animals at birth to determine heredity and
projection accusing others of having your own negative feelings
sublimation defense mechanism of channeling energy from unacceptable means to acceptable means
screen memory memories that serve as representations of important childhood experiences
Individual theory psychoanalytical theory developed from Alfred Adler, based on the postitive, creative, social, and whole. We work on social needs and on "becoming", we either feel inferiority due to the gap between the ideal and the real, or a quest for superiority
Adlerian personality models choleric (ruling-dominant; activity high contribution low), phlegmatic (getting-leaning; low activity high in contribution), melancholic (avoiding; low in activity and contribution), and sanguine (socially useful; high in both activity and contribution)
analytical theory Carl Jung, the main drive is toward life and awareness
persona the outer mask and mediator with the outside world, analytical theory (Jubng)
shadow a person's dark side, projected onto others and symbolized by devils, analytical theory (Jung)
anima female elements that men possess, completmenting his own maleness, analytical theory (Jung)
animus male elements that females possess, complementing her own femaleness, analytical theory (Jung)
self (analytical theory) the full individual potential, symbolized by figures such as Jesus or Buddha, and by the mandala
cognitive therapy Aaron Beck; conscious thought patterns are the main role and not unconcsious drives; interpretation of events is more important than actual events; therapy is directed, short term, and focuses on tangible evidence of client logic
maladaptive cognitions arbitrary inference, overgeneralization , magnifying/minimizing, personalizing, dichotomous thinking
arbitrary inference drawing a conclusion without solid evidence (cognitive therapy)
dichotomous thinking black and white thinking in cognitive therapy
rational-emotive therapy Albert Ellis; combination of cognitive, behavioral, and emotion theory; ABCDE (Activating event, irrational Belief, Consequence of emotional disruption, therapist Disputes belief, client gets Effective rational belief
gestalt theory Fritz Perls, max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka; the goal is to detatch from past and fully experience and perceive the present; problems arise when we cannot perceive/fully experience the presetn and lack insight; thearpy is a dialog
existential theory Victor Frankl and Rollo May; focuses on meaningfulness and meaninglessness; neuroticism stems from a lack of meaning
antipsychotics block dopamine receptors and production; thorazine (chlorpromazine) and Haldol (haloperidol)
chlorpromazine Thorazine generic, and antipsychotic
Thorazine name brand for chlorpromazine, an antipsychotic
Haldol name brand for haloperidol, an antipsychotic
Haloperidol generic for Haldol, an antipsychotic
Lithium an antimanic, used for treatment of manic-depression
Antimanics inhibit monoaminessuch as norepinephrine and serotonin
Antidepressants increase monoamine production; include tricyclic antidepressants (TCA), Monoamine Oxidase Inhibtors (MAOI), Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI), anxiolytics, and antabuse
tricyclic antidpressants (TCA) amitriptyline (Elavil)
amitriptyline generic for Elavil, an tricyclic antidepressant
MAOI monoamine oxidase inhibitor, such as phenelzine (Nardil)
Elavil brand name for amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant
Phenelzine generic for Nardil, an MAOI
Nardil brand name for phenelzine, an MAOI
SSRI Selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitor, such as Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft
Prozac name brand for fluoxetine, an SSRI
Fluoxetine generic for Prozac, an SSRI
Paxil name brand for paroxetine, an SSRI
Paroxetine generic for Paxil, and SSRI
Zoloft name brand for sertraline, an SSRI
Sertraline generic for Zoloft, an SSRI
Anxiolytics increase effectiveness of GABA to reduce anxiety or cause sleep; include barbituates and benzodiazepines
Diazepam generic for Valium, an anxiolytic benzodiazepine
Valium name brand for diazepam, an anxiolytic benzodiazepine
Antabuse changes metabolism of alcohol to make one nauseous (i.e. fight alcoholism)
Hans Eysenck critcized effectiveness of psychopharmacology as being no more succssful than no treatment at all
Melanie Klein pioneered psychoanalysis in children; object-relations theory (adult relations are based on infant/child experiences)
Karen Horney Neo-Freudian, stressed culture and society over instinct, neuroticism is a movement away from people
Harry Stack Sullivan Neo-Freudian, empasized social and interpersonal relationships
The Three Forces of psychotherapy Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, Humanistic Psychology
Donald Meichenbaum stress-inoculation therapy
Neil Miller proved that abnormal behavior can be learned
Pick's disease disease of the frontal and temporal lobes characterized by changes in personality
schizoaffective disorder s chizophrenic symptoms with depression
schizotypal elements of schizophrenia/distorted reality, with eccentricities
tardive dyskinesia repetetive movements of tongue, jaw, or extremeties as a consequence of long-term neuroleptic or psychotropic drugs
cretinism mental retardation caused by iodine deficiency
Korsakoff's syndrome caused by heavy drinking, a vitamin B deficiency creates gaps in memory that are filled with made up events called confabulations
Wernicke's syndrome caused by heavy drinking, a thiamine deficiency causes memory problems and eye dysfunctions
Phenylketonuria (PKU) excessive amino acids in infants creates errors in metabolism
Tay-Sachs Disease genetic deficiency that mimics symptoms of dementia and schizophrenia
Klinefelter's syndrome a Y and two X chromosomes
Martin Seligman discussed reactive depression and learned helplessness
Thomas Szasz schizophrenia is artisitc, misunderstood, and should not be treated
Fromm and Reichman schozophrenogenic mothers
David Rosenhan studied pseudopatients that acted normal once they were admitted but whose behaviors were still being labeled as abnormal
Axis I Clinical disorders
Axis II Personality Disorders and Menta Retardation
Axis III General Medical Conditions
Axis IV Psychosocial and environmental conditions
Axis V GAF Score
primary preventions programs like DARE or Headstart that prevent mental health concerns in target populations
zygote fertilized ovum
germinal stage lasts 2 weeks, divides into 64 cells and implants into the uterus
embryonic stage lasts until the end of the second month, main focus is organ formation
fetal stage 3 months until birth
Moro reflex throwing arms and legs in response to loud noises
Babinski reflex curling toes when bottom of foot is touched
Palmar reflex grasping in hand
adaptation (Piagetian) assimilation (fitting new info into existing ideas) or accomodation (modifying schemata to incorporate new information)
sensorimotor stage (Piagetian) 0-2 years, reflexes give way to circular reactions (repeated behavior to manipulate)' object permanence; representaiton (visualization and language)
preoperational stage (Piagetian) 2-7 years, egocentric understanding, rapidly acquiring words, inability to perform mental operations such as causality or true understanding of quantity
concrete operational (Piagetian) 7-12 years, understanding concrete relatiohships (simple math and quantity), conservation despite shape and volume changes
formal operational (Piagetian) 12+ years, abstract relationships, logic, ratios, and values
Rochel Gelman showed that Piaget underestimated the cognitive ability of preschoolers and infants
Moral development (Piagetian) 4-7 (imitates rule following behavior), 7-11 understands and follow, 12+ applies abstract rules and can change rules if all parties agree
Lawrence Kohlberg theories of stages of development: avoid punishment, seek rewards, seek praise, follow rules, attentive to rights, able to follow abstract concepts
Carol Gilligan postied that Kohlberg's moral development was biased towards males as it is rule-based; women follow compassion more than rules
Erikson's stage birth-18 m trust v mistrust
Erikson's stage 18m-3y autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Erikson's stage 3y-6y initiative v guilt
Erikson's stage 6y-puberty industry v inferiority
Erikson's stage teen identity v. role confusion
Erikson's stage y adult intimacy v. isolation
Erikson's stage m adult productivity v. stagnation
Erikson's stage o adult integrity v. despair
John Bowlby positive and negative forces help forge attachment of infant to mother; healthy attachments to mother during critical period lead to healthy attachments throughout life
Mary Ainsworth used the stange situation to study attachment; discovered stranger anxiety, seperation anxiety, etc.
Diana Baumrind studied parenting styles and coined terms authoitarian, permissive, and authoritative parents
Arnold Gessel nature provides only the blueprint, nurture actually develops that blueprint
sex-typed behavior weak in prepubescence, strong in adolescence, weaker again later in life
WIlliam Sheldon used "somatotypes" to predict personality based on body shape (fat = social pleasure-seeker, skinny = introvert)
GOrdan Allport created modern personality theory based on traits and states. We have cardinal traits that do not very by state, central traits, and secondary traits. Secondary traits very greatly by state
Raymond Cattell reduced Allport's 5000 traits to 16 bipolar traits
Big Five OCEAN - (Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism)
Walter Mischel and Nancy Cantor explored the consistency paradox - personality traits are not consistent fro situation to situation; cognitive processes interfere with out personality prototype
heritability of personality 40-50%
Kay Deaux successes in typically male tasks are attributed to skill in males, luck in females. Women self-attribute this as well, leading to lower self-esteem
Sandra Bem studied androgyny, found that self-esteem is highest with androgynous individuals, creted the Bem Sex Role Inventory
Martina Horner found that women often shun male-dominated activities bcause they fear success
Eleanor Maccoby and Carol Jacklin found that almost all sex-differences can be explained away through social learning except the disparity between women's verbal and men's spatial intelligence
Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman described Type A personality
Grant Dahlstrom discovered that Type A personality leads to heart disease
F-scale stands for "fascism scale, measures authoritarianism and predicts stereotypical thinking
George Kelley personal constructs (conscious thoughts) play more into personality than unconcsious
Jullian Rotter locus of control
dispositional attribution aka fundamental attribution error; we tend to think that another person's actions are based on personality and not situation, but reverse for ourselves
Barnum effect we accept and agree with personality interpretations that are given
self-efficacy the belief that one can accomplish a goal
Costa and McRae discovered that personality doesn't change much after 30
Thematic Apperception Test TAT, uses ambiguous story cards that patients fill in, hopefully to project their needs, desires onto the story
Norman Triplett first social psychologist experiment; foud cyclists ride faster when riding with someone else
Kurt Lewin founder of social psychology,came fromGestalt
Fritz Heider social psychologist, founder of attribution theoryand balance theory (we act ot preserve homeostasis)
halo effect the assumption that one good characteristic means that a person has other good characteristics
Lee Ross studied subjects that were told a lie and later told that it wasn't true. If they had processed an explanation for it, they still maintained original false belief
base-rate fallacy the fallacy that the familiar is thought to be much more common than it really is
M. J. Lerner just world hypothesis
representative heuristic a heuristic based on how much a person fits a prototype or stereotype
availability heuristic heuristic that assumes that the most salient example is most common
Leon Festinger cognitive dissonance
Daryl Bem self-perception theory - we take cues from our behavior and environment (when we are paid, we don't enjoy it as much)
gain-loss theory we like starting out negatively and improving better than having posive the whole time
Morton Deutsch prisoner's dilemma and trucking company dilemma
Solomon Asch the experiment with confederates who lied about which line is bigger to test conformity
Muzafer Sharif Robber's Cave experiment, used game-style to look at conflict and prejudice, showed that equal power and cooperative problem-solving overcome prejudice
James Stoner group polarization; the risky shift (groups are more likely to take risks than individuals), discussion serves to strengthen the alsready dominat POV
factors of groupthink Irving Janis, unquestioned beliefs, pressure to conform, invulnerability, censors, cohesiveness within, isolation from without, and a strong leader
pluralistic ignorance most disagree but believe that the others agree, so everyone goes along with the group even though they don't mostly agree
Kenneth and Mamie Clark showed that black girls preferred white dolls
four factors of attraction 1) propinquity (nearness) 2) physically attractive 3)similar attitudes 4) reciprocity
Richard Lazarus studied reactions to stress. we can either change the stressor (problem-focused) or our reaction (emotion-focused)
J. Rodin and E. Langer showed that elderly that take care of aplant are healthier
bogus pipeline lie told that a machine can tell if they are lying so that people give more correct responses
Leonard Berkowitz studied link between frustration and aggression
M. Rokeach showed that like-mindedness is more powerful than like-skinnedness
Hazel Markus studied interaction of how communal/individualistic a culture is and personality
Elaine Hatfield passionate and companionate love
Walter Dill Scott first to apply psycho9logy to business, via advertising. he also started psych tests for military
Hawthorne effect coined by Henry Landsberger, found that productivity increases when someone is being observed
Franz Joseph Gall started prenology
Sir Francis Galton first to apply stats to psych, also promoted eugenics
Gustav Fechner first experimental psychologist first experiment that had mathematical results
Wilhelm Wundt founder of psychology, started first psych lab
William James first American psychologist, stream of consciousness and functionalism
Stanley Hall recieved first psych PhD, started APA and first psych journal
John Dewey reflex arc and functonalism
Edward Tichener started structuralism
Dorothea Dix applied psychology to improve treatment of mentally ill in hospitalization
Maz Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka started Gestalt
Victor Frankl started existential psychology, started logotherapy which uses the search for meaning as a means of healing
Aaron Beck pioneered cognitive techniques in therapy; maladaptive thoughts cause abnormalities
Alfred Binet created the IQ test
Stanford-Binet Intelligence scale modified from Binet's original to account for changes in intelligence over age, used mostly in children
Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale self-explanitory, but is the one used for adults and has multiple subscores
factors that predict IQ in adoption studies IQ reflects biological parents and SES of adopted parents
decline of memory due to age fluid intelligence (ability to learn) decreases yet crystalized intelligence (knowing facts) does not
Robert Zajonc studied birth order and intelligence; the oldest is highest, and each subsequent child is less; the bigger the gap between children, the more intelligent
Q-sort test subject organizes adjectives on cards into how much they indicate the subject's personality
MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory assesses personality using three validity scales (lying, carelessness, and faking), also can diagnose some abnormals
CPI California Personality Inventory used for normal populations
Myer-Brigg Type Indicator Personality inventory based on Jungian psycholgy to give the four letter code
Projective Testing subject creates their own naswer that is interpreted
Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study A series of pictures of frustrating situations where the subject needs to predict the response
Beck Depression Inventory Does not diagnose, but it doues note severity of symptoms to track over time
empirical or criterion keying tests responses show which subgroup a subject fits into (such as career tests)
Bayley Scale of Infant Development tracks milestones of physical development but is a poor predictor of later intelligence
quasi-experiment an experiment where random placement into groups is impossible or unethical (i.e. smoking for 20 years)
acquiensence when a subject agrees to conflicting statements
demand characteristic when a subject acts in a way that they think the experimenter wants them to act
Rosenthal effect experimenter bias
Reactance when a subject changes their attitude because of options being limited
selective attrition when enough subjects drop out of a study and their group is no longer representative or random
meta-analysis statistical analysis of multiple studies
nominal variables a varaible that has a name or title attached to it, such as Republican/Democrat, male/female
ordinal variables variables need to be arranged in order but there can be any gap in between, such as marathon running times
interval variables variables with set distance in between, such as temperature, any zeros are arbitrary
ratio variables a variable with a set order, set distance, and a real zero, such as age
measures of central tendency mean, median, mode
calculating variance and standard deviation variance; subtract each value from the mean, square the differences, add the squared differences, divide by the number of values, then take the square root
z-score the number of deviations a datum is from the mean
t score a transformation of the z score so that 50 is the mean and each increment of 10 is a snandard deviation
stnandard normal deviation ratios 34:14:02
Pearson r correlation coefficient a range of -1 to +1 showing how muhc it correlates. 0 means there is no correlation, -1 is perfectly negative, etc.
Spearman r correlation coefficient coefficient for the line that determines correlation when data is in ranks,
statistical regression the procedure for determining relationship and predicting obe variable based on another
null hypothesis no correlation between variables; the correlation is equal to or less than random chance
test of significance a test to determine how much data rejects the null hypothesis
alpha level the baseline criterion to test significance (less that 5% or 1% margin of error)
Type I error incorrectly reject the null hypothesis
Type II error incorrectly accept the null hypothesis
t-test a test of significance that compares the means of two sets of data. If the difference between the means are considered significant. T tests can only be used on two data sets, and are best for continuous data (such as height or weight)
Chi-square test a test of significance that looks at patterbs or distributions of a specific category (i.e. representativeness of race within a group)
discrete data data that must be counted and therefore can never be negative
ANOVA, analysis of variance like a t test but more flexible. it allows analysis of more than two sets of data of different sample sizes, one-way for one independent variable, two-way for two independnet variables
factorial analysis of variance used for more that one independent variable and to show the effects of each independent variable
criterion-referenced test measures mastery in a particular area or subject (i,e, a final exam)
domain-referenced test measure less defined properties (i.e. intelligence)
split-half reliability comparing two halves of a test to see reliable scores, such as evens v. odd
reliability stability of test scores
validity how well a test measures a construct
internal validity how well the different test items test the same thing
external validity how well a test measures what it says it will measure
concurrent validity whether scores of a new meaure positively correlate with other measures known to measure the same construct
construct validity whether it measures the construct
content validity whether the content covers a good sample of the construct's aspects
Created by: mrjones