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Reflex/Reactions

SOME info from handout

QuestionAnswer
Reflexes can measure what in kids? Can be a measurement of age
Reflexes can measure what at any age? Quality of response to stimulation; If response symmetrical; If response exaggerated
Does normal reflex testing work for premies? No!
Rooting is what kind of reflex? Survival
What do reflexes do for you? Environment exploration; Automatic postural runs are foundation of postural adjustements & work as complex system to restore/maintain equilibrium with respect to gravity, environment & other body parts
Postural Reflex Characteristics Context Dependent; Developmentally hierarchial; Activated by wide range of sensory stimuli; Organization & coordination of responses are variable depending upon the magnitude, frequency & type of stimuli
Postural Reflex Characteristics Presence of specific postural rxns is thought to be necessary for developing motor milestones
Reflex Development Continuous (conception->maturity); Sequence same in most kids; Related to CNS maturity; Cephalocaudal, proximodistal, horizontal-vertical
Reflex Development Mass activity replaced by specific individual responses; Certain reflexes have to be "lost" (integrated) before corresponding voluntary mvmt acquired
Primitive vs. Pathological Reflexes Appear at birth, integrated by 6 months; Primitive present in all normal infants; Don't necessarily have to appear in every child as complete reflex each time they're elicited; NEVER obligatory
Primitive vs. Pathological Integration- modification of mvmt thru & by increasingly complex network within CNS; Reflexes may work in concert with other reflexes to expedite mvmt performance; Could be reactivated under stress/injury
Primitive vs. Pathological Primitive reflexes elicited by: tactile, vestibular, proprioceptive, pain stimuli; Primitive are pathologic when stimulus ALWAYS/almost always produces SAME response or when they persist too long
Righting Reactions Eventually integrated into more complex activities such as equilibrium rxns & voluntary mvmt; Essential for building motor patterns; Orient head in space; Right head in space no matter what body position is in the environment
Vertical Righting Hold child & tilt in various directions, head should remain vertical w/ mouth horizontal; Blindfold added = labyrinthine head righting run; No blindfold = optical & labyrinthine head righting; Landau is part of these responses
Rotational Righting aka Body righting; Develops RALBA; Stimulus is somatosensory ; If head turned, vestibular & visual input also result
What are 2 types of equilibrium rxns? Protective & Tilting
Protective Rxns aka? Parachute or Propping Reactions; Extension of extremities in same direction as displacing force; Facilitated by vestibular input
Protective Reactions ritical to faciliation of a protective rxn is the amount, speed & point of application of the force; If child anticipates stimulus, may prepare body & equilibrium rxn occurs instead
Protective Reactions Difficult in kids who have developed equilibrium runs; Rxns are highly context dependent
Tilting Reactions Responses to changes of posture or mvmt which seek to resort disturbed balance; Allow arms to remain free for manipulation (LEs/trunk balance); Muscular response may be invisible; Tonal changes/counter mvmts when COG displaced (usually opposite force)
Tilting Rxns ELONGATION on WB side!; Abd & ext of extremities on downhill side or in direction of push might also occur in prep for protective rxn if balance should be lost
What 4 factors influence all types of equilibrium reactions? Head control (need head righting in prone, sup, laterally); Vision (optical righting, orietntation of head); Ability to change COG (move pelvis); Appropriate extremity mvmt (need hands for some things)
Assessment of Reflexes/Rxns Depends on developmental maturation; Decide on stimulus & analyze how other stimuli can be controlled; Be consistent when using tools!; Grading- absent/present os simple, also look at quality
Assessment of Reflexes/Rxns Overtesting leads to habituation, fatigue, decreased cooperation; Also consider emotional state; When testing, consistent degree & speed, length of time allowed for response should be used (play it by ear = EXPERIENCE)
Created by: 1190550002