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Unit 2: Bonding

Ions, Isotopes, various types of chemical bonds

compound two or more atoms (elements) chemically bonded together by a chemical reaction. ex. NaCl
covalent bond When atoms share valence electrons to feel stable. When two non-metals bond together.
covalent bond properties These are weak bonds. They have low melting and boiling points. ex. H20
element Smallest form of matter. Cannot be broken down into a smaller substance. Ex. Au
Group 1 Easier to bond with because it has less valence electrons to get rid of. (1 valence e-)
Group 14 Hard to bond with because it needs to add or lose 4 electrons to feel stable.
Group 17 Easier to bond with because it only needs one more electron to be full. (It has 7 valence e-)
hydrogen bond when water molecules bond to other water molecules.
ionic bond When ions of opposite charges are attracted to one another and bond. When a nonmetal and a metal bond together.
ionic bond properties These are strong bonds. They have high melting and boiling points. Ex. CaCl2
ions Atoms that gain or lose electrons and will have a positive or negative charge.
isotopes Atoms that gain or lose neutrons. They will have a neutral charge and their mass will change.
Law of Conservation of Mass Mass cannot be created or destroyed. This means the mass before a chemical reaction has to be the same after a reaction.
metallic bonds When two metal atoms bond together by loosely held together valence electrons. They conduct electricity, have luster, are malleable, and ductile.
metals are on the left side of the periodic table.
Non-metals are on the right side of the periodic table.
metalloids Can act as a metal or a non-metal. These elements border the stair steps of the periodic table.
Positive Charged Ion Happens when an atom loses electrons.
Negative Charged Ion happens when an atom gains electrons.
Cation A positive charged ion
Anion A negative charged ion
Radioactivity the spontaneous emission of radiation by an unstable atomic nucleus
Half-life length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay