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Anti-hypertensive drugs

ClassDrugsMechanismAdverse effectsIndications
ACE Inhibitors Captopril (non-peptide - good oral bioavailability), Enalapril Inhibit breakdown of Angiotensin I to II, also inhibit breakdown of bradykinin (vasodilator) - inhibits aldo release and vasoconstriction Reversible renal failure, loss of taste, angiedema (swelling of face and neck), dry nonproductive cough, rash, fetal malformations HTN, MI, Diabetes, Renal insufficiency
ARB Losartan, valsartan block AT1 receptors, decreases PVR - venous side decreases preload, arterial side decreases afterload (decreases LV hypertrophy) - E-3174 carboxylic acid is active metabolite Hyperkalemia, dizziness, fetal injury/death, HTN - stroke prevention, CHF, chronic kidney disease
Vasodilators-CCB Verapamil angina - coronary artery relaxation, peripheral relaxation (decreased afterload). Arrythmias - slow conduction through AV node, decreases HR and contractility. HTN - reduces Constipation, AV block - don't give to those with cardiac conduction problems, and those on alpha blockers
Vasodilators-CCB diltiazem Like verapamil but weaker in everything except coronary artery dilation same as verapamil, but less severe. Gingival sensitivity (blank)
Vasotilators-CCB-dihydropyridines Nifedipine Angina - coronary artery dilation, decrease PVR slight increase in HR (reflex tachycardia) (blank)
Vasodilators-ATP sensitive K+ channels HCTZ, minoxidil, diazoxide, pinacidil (blank) (blank) (blank)
Vasodilators-others nitrates, NaNitroprusside, nitroglycerin activation of guanylyl cyclase excessive vasodilation and hypotension (blank)
Vasodilators - others hydralazine arterial vasodilation reflex tachycardia -lupus like symptoms (blank)
Vasodilators - dopamine agonists fenoldopam very quick acting DA agonist hypokalemia (reflex tachycardia isn't a problem because these patients are usually on IV drip IV drip - short duration in hospital for malignant HTN, or end organ failure (kidney sparing - dilation of both afferent and efferent arteriole)
Sympatholytics-centrally acting Clonidine Alpha 2 agonist (decreases sympathetic outflow to the heart) - can be used as a patch Rebound hypertension if they forget to take their medicine Detox - Opioid withdrawal
Created by: milletbrock



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