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Stack #120108

Human Development & Learning definitions # 1 (WGU)

cognitive development gradual, orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex and sophisticated
schemes mental patterns that guide behavior
adaptation the process of adjusting schemes in response to the environment by means of assimilation and accommodation
assimilation understanding new experiences in terms of existing schemes.
accommodation modifying existing schemes to fit new situations
equilibration the process of restoring balance between present understanding and new experiences.
constructivism view of cognitive development that emphasizes the active role of learners in building their own understanding of reality.
motivation the influence of needs and desires on the intensity and direction of behavior.
sensorimotor stage stage during which infants learn about their surroundings by using their senses and motor skills
reflexes inborn, automatic responses to stimuli (eye blinking in response to bright light)
object permanence The fact that an object exists even if it is out of sight.
preoperational stage Stage when children learn to represent things in their mind.
conservation Concept that properties of an object (like weight) stay the same when other properties change. (like length)
centration Paying attention to only one aspect of an object or situation.
reversibility Ability to perform a mental operation and then reverse your thinking to return to starting point.
egocentric Believing that everyone sees the world the way you do.
concrete operational stage Stage where children develop capacity for logical reasoning & understanding of conservation but can only use these skills to deal with familiar situations.
inferred reality meaning of stimuli in the context of relevant information.
seriation Arranging objects in sequential order according to one thing. (like size, weight, or volume)
transitivity A skill learned during the concrete operational stage of cognitive development where individuals can mentally arrange & compare objects.
class inclusion A skill learned during concrete operational stage of cognitive operational stage of cognitive development where individuals can think simultaneously about a whole class of objects and about relationships among its subordinate classes.
formal operational stage Stage where one can deal abstractly with hypothetical situations and can reason logically.
developmentally appropriate education instruction felt to be adapted to the current developmental status of children (rather than their age alone)
sign systems Symbols cultures create to help people think, communicate, and solve problems.
Self-regulation The ability to think and solve problems without help from others.
private speech Children's self-talk, that guides their thinking and actions.
zone of proximal development Level of development immediately above a person's present level.(used to build upon)
scaffolding Support for learning and problem solving (clues, reminders, encouragement, breaking problem into steps, providing an example, etc.
Created by: lnino