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Psych Exam 1 Ch2

Association Areas Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
left hemisphere functions verbal processing: language, speech, reading, writing
right hemisphere functions nonverbal processing: spatial, musical, visual recognition
nodes of Ranvier a gap occurring at regular intervals between segments of myelin sheath along a nerve axon of certain neurons that serves to facilitate the rapid conduction of nerve impulses.
axon the neuron's extension that passes messages through its branching terminal fibers that form junctions with other neurons, muscles, or glands
myelin sheath covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
central nervous system The brain and spinal cord.
peripheral nervous system The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body.
sensory cortex The area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations.
hormones Chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
corpus callosum The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
synapse The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
dendrites The bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
autonomic nervous system The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
motor neurons Neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands.
mirror neurons Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy
neurotransmitters Chemical messengers that traverse synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, they travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neurons, influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
Antagonist VS agonist Inhibits, similar to to the neurotransmitter to occupy its receptor site and block its action but not similar enough to stimulate the receptor (Curare paralyzes by blocking ACh receptors involved in muscle movement)
occipital lobe portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field
temporal lobe mid –forebrain dedicated to auditory sensation and language (Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas)
parietal lobe The portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head toward the rear; includes the sensory cortex.
frontal lobe The portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements.
Agonist Excites,Similar to transmitter structure, it mimics its effects on the receiving neuron (Morphine mimics endorphins)
Created by: pizza123
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