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digest system

digestive system

what is the digestive system and also what is another name for the digestive system? alimentary canal
function of the digestive system is the path that food takes from the mouth to the anus
what are two parts of the digestive system? accessory glands and the alimentary canal
accessory glands of the digestive system salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
salivary glands digestive enzymes which help break down food
liver produces bile which helps break down fat
gallbladder stores bile
pancreas endocrine, produces insulin and helps aide in digestion
divisions of alimentary canal mouth, pharynx,esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine which terminates at anus
abdominopelvic cavity extends from diaphragm to bony pelvis
abdominal cavity contains stomach, small intestines, large intestines, liver, pancreas, spleen, gallbladder, and kidneys
pelvic cavity contains rectum, sigmoid, urinary bladder, and the reproductive organs
peritoneum double layered membrane sac of the abdominal cavity in the abdomen
parietal peritoneum wall of abdomen
visceral peritoneum direct contact with the organ
peritoneal cavity is an actual cavity in the abdomen
messentery extension of visceral peritoneum which anchors the organ in place. blood supply to organ
retroperitoneum urinary system which is part of reproduction. area behind peritoneum
whats structures are included in the retroperitoneum? kidneys and the large intestine
omentum extension of messentery
greater omentum outside the stomach, connects greater part of stomach transverse colon
lesser omentum inside of the stomach, connects lesser curvature of the stomach to the liver
mesocolon connects transverse colon to posterior abdominal wall
lumen cavity within a hollow organ, or opening of a vessel
sphincter circular muscle that controls opening and closing of an orifice or passage
peristalsis wavelike motion that pushes food through the digestive tract
segmentation churning, happens in the stomach
stenosis narrowing of a lumen (cavity within a hollow organ)
atresia an absence of an opening
what are the 4 layers of the walls of the digestive tract from outer most? serous or adventitia, muscular, submucosal, and mucosal
serous or adventitia outside layer in contact with visceral peritoneum
muscular responsible for peristalsis
submucosal just below muscular
mucosal inner most wall of stomach/ mucus-inside
six substances required to meet bodily requirements carbs, fats, mineral salts, proteins, vitamins, and water
ingestion consumption of a substance by an organism
mastication chewing
deglutition swallowing
digestion getting ready for absorption, chemical and mechanical of food
absorption the passage of food into the blood or lymp capillaries in the small intestines
mouth also called oral cavity. first division of digestive system, enclosed dental arches, and receives saliva from salivary glands
divisions of the mouth oral vestibule and oral cavity
oral vestibule from cheek to cheek in a closed mouth
oral cavity behind the teeth
hard palate top of oral cavity, made up of maxilla and palpatine bone
soft palate just behind hard palate, fold of epithelial tissue for septum between mouth and pharynx (oropharnyx and nasopharnyx)
uvula gag reflex
tonsils tissue that sits on either side of the uvula located anterior and posterior to hard palate
tongue muscle covered by epithelial tissue. strongest of all muscles in the body houses taste buds. tip of tongue is the apex, base of tongue posterior. forces food into teeth
sublingual space part that lies under the tongue
frenulum of tongue anchors tongue to oral cavity
teeth allows for chewing, makes food smaller
salivary glands produce saliva which break down food
three pairs of salivary glands parotid/duct stenson submandibular/ whartons sublingual/sublingul
ptyalin saliva or digestive enzyme
parotid largest of salivary glands. sits in front of the ear to mastoid tip. duct (stenson) opens into orovestible right between second upper molar
submandibular located below the mandible from first lower molar to mandible, whartons is the associated duct
sublingual smallest gland(s) but numerous. located on the floor of the mouth in front of the submandibular
sialography radiographic image of salivary gland. only one gland can be examed at a time. infrequently performed. modality of choice MRI
fistulae abnormal communication between two structures
diverticula pocket where stuff goes into
calculi stone
strictures stenosis
what secretory stimulant is given to the patient for sialography procedure? lemon
radiographs still images
pharynx common to both digestive and respiratory system
nasopharynx behind the nose
orapharynx behind the mouth
laryngopharynx behind the throat
layers of the esophagus muscular, submucosal, and mucosal
location of the esophagus at midsagittal plane posterior to trachea. starts at c6 and passes through diaphragm at t9. joins with stomach at t10
function of esophagus takes digested food to stomach from the mouth
cardiac antrum belling out portion of the stomach close to the heart
cardiac orifice opening at the end of the stomach
stomach located in the left upper quadrant. lies more obliquely and aides in getting food to the small intestines
segmentation breaks down food
T or F alcohol is absorbed in the stomach?` true
how many peristalsis waves are in the stomach? 3 to 4 per minute in a filled stomach
emptying of the stomach and transit time to the ileocecal valve takes how long? 2 to 3 hours
chyme food that has been broken down,which enters the small intestine
gastric enzymes of the stomach are? pepsin, renin- curdels milk, and gastrin
4 layers of the stomach 1. serous- outside layer 2. muscular 3. submucosal 4. mucosal
rugae mucosal folds of the stomach and bladder
what are four pairts of the stomach? cardia, fundus, body, and pyloric portion
cardia consists of cardiac orifice and cardiac sphincter
the fundus is located where? superior and sits posteriorly
pyloric portion consists of pyloric antrum, canal, orifice and sphincter
achalasia is a cardiac sphincter that does not work
diverticulum out pouching
zinckers pouch large divertiuculum found at the distal portion of the esophagus
pyloric stenosis seen in babies, projectile vomiting
lesser curvature medial side right border 4" long hooks up with the liver from esophogastric to pyloric antrum
greater curvature lateral side, 16" long left border, cardiac notch to pyloric antrum
cardiac notch esophograstric junction, angle
small intestine found in all four quadrants, is 22' feet long and has three portions
what are the three portions of the small intestine? duodenum 8-10" jejunum 9' ileum 13'
function of the small intestine absorption of nutrients
plica circularis only found in the jejunum to increase surface area,with contrast the circular folds take on a feather affect
vili increases absorption area, found throughout all three portions and they are like finger like projections
duodenum is a 8-10" in size and has has four regions 1. superior, 2. descending, 3. horizontal and 4. ascending
superior region of duodenum duodenal bulb where contents from stomach are dumped into
descending region of the duodenum amupulla vater, which is controlled by the sphincter of oddi
horizontal region of the duodenum third region of duodenum
ascending region of the duodenum angle of treitz, which is supported by a ligament suspensory muscle where duodenum meets it
cholecystokinin or CCK hormone released from duodenum which triggers the release of bile which triggers the gallbladder to contract and release bile
cystic duct comes directly off of the gall bladder
* liver * produces bile, right and left hypatic duct forms common hypatic duct, which in turn forms common bile duct. common bile duct hooks up behind to pancreatic duct at the apulla of vater (which is controlled by the spihncter of oddi)
GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease, heart burn
barrett's chronic gerd which causes inflammation of the esophagus
jejunum 9' feet and is located between the duodenum and the ileum
ileum size is 13'feet. is also where the ileocecal valve is located.
ileocecal valve prevents backflow, distal portion of ileum called merkels diverticulum
small intestine pathology crohn's disease and lymph follicle (peyer's patch)
lymph follicle (peyer's patch) caused by unpasteurized milk
crohn's disease auto immune disease which affects from the mouth to the anus, ulcers, and inflammation. affects prodominantly the small intestine
large intestine 5 ft in size and is located in the abdomen. absorbes water and is storage for waste
nine parts of the large intestine 1. cecum 2. ascending colon 3. right colic (hepatic) flexure 4. transverse colon 5. left colic (splenic) flexure 6. descen. colon 7. sigmoid colon 8. rectum 9. anal canal & anus
cecum RLQ. appendix comes off of the cecum
ascending colon on the right side
right hepatic flexure more anterior
transverse colon comes out anteriorly
left splenic flexure left side much more cephalic
descending colon left side
sigmoid colon left side more caudal is "S" shaped
rectum 5-6 inches long. follows the curve of the sacrum anterior.
rectal ampulla opening into rectum
rectal columns alot of blood vessels
hemorroids causes out pouching of blood vessels
anal sphincter internal- involuntary smooth muscle external- voluntary skeletal muscle
haustra mucosal folds in the large intestine
taeniae coli longitudinal bands of muscle that cause the puckering affect of the haustra
semi-lunar folds folds found in haustra
mucosal glands
appendicitis inflammation of the appendix
ulcerative colitis auto immune disease similar to chron's. consistant to large bowel, rectum is not spared
cholecystitis inflammation of the gall bladder
colitis inflammation of the colon
duodenitis inflammation of the duodenum
diverticulitis involves the formation of pouches diverticula on the outside of the colon one of these diverticula becomes inflammed or infected
enteritis inflammation of the small intestine
peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum
volvulous bowel twists upon itself with causes a blockage
intersusseption bowel telescopes itself with can cause a blockage
fistula abnormal communication between two structures
ileus just a blockage, bowel looses peristalysis, obstruction bowel dies
toximaga colon colon looses peristalic ability
pancreas across the abdomen mixed gland. exocrine function enzymes/ pancreatic duct. endocrine function ilets of langerhans/hormones
ilets of langerhans nest of cells where insulin is produced
horomomes of pancreas/endocrine insulin and glucagon
gall bladder RUQ depression under surface of liver and pear shaped.
cholecyst gall bladder, sac
3 coverings of the gall bladder mucosal,muscle, and serous
3 parts fundus, body, and neck
function of gall bladder to store and release bile
gall bladder position varies with what? body habitus
liver has double blood supply and is the largest cell and organ in the entire body.
location of liver RUQ consists of two lobes, falciform ligament. right caudate and quadrate. left capsule of glisson
capsule of glisson network of small blood vessels, connective tissue which forms capsule around the liver
blood supply of the liver hepatic artery, portal vein and kupffer cells where blood detoxification takes place
main physiological function of the liver the production of bile
biliary system includes liver and gall bladder
function of biliary system to get bile into digestive tract. from liver right and left hepatic duct followed by common hepatic duct. cystic duct comes from the gall bladder, common hepatic duct leads to common bile duct to hepatopancreatic duct/ ampulla of vater sphincter of oddi
procedure for abdomen pt. prep gown pt and remove artifacts. 70-80 kvp and 115 grid, large FSS, IR for adult 14x17. SID 40-44", right ID markers. radiation protection.
pt. instructions on expiration to slow down peristalysis and moves diaphragm out of the way
prep for contrast exams consist of controlled diet, laxative, and enemas and is aggressive
gastrografin iodine which is water soluble
no preliminary prep on acutely ill pts and suspected visceral rupture which you would never give contrast
expo technique 70-80 kvp you want long scale contrast/gray scale. AEC phototimer. 115 grid is always used for an abdomen
tissue structures used to determine effective technique lower liver border, psoas muscles- on either side of spine, kidney shadow, lower ribs,spleen, transverse processs of lumbar, intra-abdomnial calcifi or tumor masses
IR size 14x17
SID 44"
ID markers R or L
radiation protection shield pediatrics and pts of reproductive age. close collimation and optimum technique factors
patient instructions history-why you are, surgeries and pain if so where at. explanation of the procedure. respiration on exhalation to raise diaphragm and slow peristalysis
essential projections AP, KUB/supine, and upright AP, L lateral decubitus in lue of upright to differentiate between free air and stomach contents lateral L dorsal decubitus to show aortic aneurysm
if pt can not stand AP upright in stretcher to include diaphragm
an acute abdominal series generally consists of AP supine-abdominal contents AP, upright-free air PA chest
AP abdomen, supine/ AKA KUB pt position supine, without rotation, support knees to reduce strain
IR centered iliac crest L4-L5 at msp-perpendicular/ mcp-parallel
must include kidneys, entire bladder area and pubic symphysis
CR perpendicular to IR no angling. enters pt on msp at level of iliac crests L4-L5
body habitus considerations hypersthenic pts and tall pts
AP abdomen, supine demonstrated area from pubic symphysis to upper abdomen included. abdomen aligned and centered vertebral column. ribs, pelvis, and hips on both sides of image. wings of ilia symmetric
what anatomy should be demonstrated in an AP abdomen, supine flank stripe, psoas muscle, lower border of liver, and kidneys. inferior ribs, transverse process of lumber vertebrae and R or L marker, but not in anatomy
AP abdomen upright standing with back in contact with IR/w vertical grid device. MSP and transpiloric plane centered to grid top of armppit at top of IR.
critique of AP abdomen, upright diaphragm without motion. marker indicating upright position. density to upright simliar to to supine- free air
pt position for AP abdomen left lateral decubitus done if pt. can not sit up or stand. recumbent left lateral on radiolucent pad. arms above diaphragm, knees flexed slightly and centered at iliac crest
CR for AP left lateral decub horizontal to the floor and perpendicular to center of IR
AP abdomen left lateral decub demonstates diaphragm, both sides of abdomen. demonstrate side down if fluid is suspected and side up if pneumoperitoneum is suspected. no rotation. right side marked which is the side up
a lateral abdomen, dorsal decub is only ordered to see what? an aortic aneurysm
ectomy to cut out/ surgical removal
stomy to create an opening
cholecystectomy removal of gall bladder
colostomy opening made in the colon to bypass obstruction
enterocolostomy opening between the small and large intestine to bypass obstruction
gastrectomy removal of the stomach
colectomy removal of the colon
ileostomy to create an opening in small intestine
Created by: eckoultd1972