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AICP Prep 2013

People

TermDefinition
Saul Alinsky Advocacy planning; vision of planning centered on community organizing; Back of the Yards movement; Rules for Radicals (1971).
William Alonso Land rent curve; bid-rent theory (1960): cost of land, intensity of development, and concentration of population decline as you move away from CBD.
Sherry Arnstein Wrote "Ladder of Participation" (1969), which divided public participation and planning into three levels: non-participation, tokenism, and citizen power.
Harland Bartholomew First full-time municipally employed planner, St. Louis (1913); developed many early comprehensive plans.
Edward Bassett Authored 1916 New York City zoning code.
Edward Bennett Plan for San Francisco (1904); worked with Burnham on 1909 plan of Chicago.
Alfred Bettman Authored first comprehensive plan: Cincinnati (1925); filed amicus curiae brief in support of Euclid and comprehensive zoning; first president of ASPO.
Ernest Burgess Concentric ring theory (1925)—urban areas grow in a series of concentric rings outward from CBD.
Daniel Burnham City Beautiful movement; White City at 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago; 1909 plan for Chicago, which applied principles of monumental city design and City Beautiful movement.
Rachel Carson Brought attention to the negative effects of pesticides on the environment with her book "Silent Spring" (1962).
F. Stuart Chapin Wrote "Urban Land Use Planning" (1957), a common textbook on land use planning.
Paul Davidoff Father of advocacy planning; argued planners should not be value neutral public servants, but should represent special interest groups.
Peter Drucker Created ‘management by objectives’ (MBO), a management process whereby the superior and subordinate 1) jointly identify their common goals, 2) define each individual's major areas of responsibility and c) use these measures as guides for operating the uni
Andres Duany Advocate for new urbanism; designed Seaside, Florida (1982).
Amitai Etziono Founder of the communitarian movement (balance between rights and responsibilities and autonomy and order); authored the "Spirit of Community."
John Friedman Transactive planning (1973): face-to-face contact instead of an anonymous target community of beneficiaries; decentralized planning; people take increasing control over the social processes that govern their welfare.
Joel Garreau Wrote Edge City (1991); an ‘edge city’ is a distinct place that has at least 5 million square feet of office, 600,000 square feet of retail, and more jobs than bedrooms.
Patrick Geddess Father of regional planning; wrote "Cities in Evolution" (1915).
Harris and Ullman Multiple Nuclei Theory (1945): urban areas grow around a number of separate nuclei, which are specialized and differentiated.
George Haussmann 19th century plan for Paris.
Ebenezer Howard Garden City movement, which sought to overcome social inequalities and economic inefficiencies of urban areas; author of "Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform" (1898).
Homer Hoyt Sector theory (1939): theory urban areas develop in sectors along communication and transportation routes.
Judith Innes Consensus building and collaborative planning; author of JAPA article, “Planning Through Consensus Building: A new view of the comprehensive planning ideal” (Autumn 1996).
Allan Jacobs Authored "Making City Planning Work" (1985), describing what it takes to change American cities; authored Great Streets (1995), described qualities and quantities of features that characterize great streets.
Jane Jacobs Looked critically at planners and planning, particularly the mistakes of urban renewal in her book Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961); advocated for mixed uses, short blocks, pedestrian-scale design, safety through eyes on the street’
Edward Kaiser Co-authored "Urban Land Use Planning"; land use strategies for hazard mitigation and environmental protection; quality of local land use plans
Alrede Keinus Historic preservation, wrote "With Heritage So Rich" (1966)
TJ Kent Author of the "Urban General Plan" (1964), classic textbook on history, purpose, scope, clients and use of comprehensive plans
Norman Krumholz Cleveland’s planning director (1969–1979); strong proponent of equity in planning
James Howard Kunstler Wrote the "Geography of Nowhere" (1993), which provides a history of suburbia and urban development; leading proponent of new urbanism; recently wrote The Long Emergency, dealing with declining oil production and the end of industrialized society
Robert Lang Authored "Edgeless Cities" (2002), dominant urban form having large, isolated, suburban office complexes that are inaccessible by pedestrians and transit
Pierre L’Enfant Original plan for Washington, D.C.
Le Corbusier Radiant city (skyscrapers for high-density living and working, surrounded by commonly owned park space), superblocks, separated uses
Nelson Lewis Wrote "Planning of the Modern City" (1916)
Charles Lindblom Wrote “The Science of ‘Muddling Through’” (1959); incremental planning, which acknowledged that changes are made in increments
John Logan and Harvey Molotch "City as a Growth Machine Theory" (1987), urban development is directed by elite members of community who control resources and who most benefit from development
Kevin Lynch Defined basic concepts within the City (paths, edges, nodes, districts); wrote the "Image of the City" (1960)
George Perkins Marsh Author of "Man and Nature" (1864), explored destructive impact of human action on environment and inspired conservation movement
Ian McHarg Conservation design, author of "Design with Nature" (1969); predecessor of the overlay of layers used in modern GIS
Walter Moody Wrote "Wacker’s Manual of the Plan of Chicago" (1912; used as a textbook for 8th graders)
Robert Moses Influenced development of state parks and parkways in New York; helped establish the State Council of Parks in 1923; blamed for displacing people and neighborhoods with highway projects in Manhattan
John Muir Founded Sierra Club in 1892 to promote protection and preservation of environment
James Oglethorpe Founder of Georgia colony; designed Savannah, a complex gridiron with a main axis and interlinking gardens and squares
Frederick Law Olmstead, Jr. First president of the American City Planning Institute; prepared numerous plans (Detroit, Utica, Boulder, New Haven, Pittsburgh, Rochester, Newport)
Frederick Law Olmstead, Sr. Central Park; believed that the city plan should include all land uses (both public and private) and should be updated often to ensure they remain relevant
Clarence Perry Neighborhood unit concept, published concept in "New York City and its Environs" (1929)
Gifford Pinchot America’s first professionally trained forester; first director of US Forest Service (1905); leader in conservation movement
Wesley Powell Authored “Report on the Lands of the Arid Region of the United States” (1878), a plan that would enable settlement for the west while conserving water resources
Jacob Riis Housing activist in NYC; wrote "How the Other Half Lives" (1890) and "Children of the Poor" (1892); social reformer
Charles Mulford Robinson and George Kessler Designed Denver’s parks and parkways system in 1906
James Rouse Design for Columbia, Maryland; pioneered development of indoor shopping malls; rejuvenated several dying downtowns by introducing festival marketplaces: Fanueil Hall in Boston; Inner Harbor in Baltimore; South Street Seaport in Manhattan
Ladislas Segoe Wrote "Local Planning Administration" (1941), first in the Greenbook series
Flavel Shurtleff Wrote "Carrying Out the City Plan" (1914), first major planning textbook
Herbert Simon Concept of ‘satisficing’, a decision-making strategy where the attempt is made to meet criteria for adequacy, rather than devise an optimal solution
Paulo Soleri Advocate for building mega-structures that are partially underground leaving nature relatively undisturbed; Arcosanti, Arizona is his major development project
Rexford Tugwell Headed US Resettlement Administration (New Deal program)
Raymond Unwin Garden Cities movement; "Town Planning in Practice" (1909); layed out Letchworth, Hertfordshire, the first Garden City, in 1903
Calvert Vaux Designed NY’s Central Park with Frederick Law Olmstead, Sr. in 1851
Lawrence Veiller First full-time housing reformer in America; founder of the National Housing Association; led effort to improve tenement conditions
William Whyte Promoted use of environmental psychology and sociology in urban design; wrote "Social Life of Small Urban Spaces" (1980); coined the term “greenway” in his book the "Last Landscape"; pioneer on conservation easements
Louis Wirth Authored "Urbanism as a Way of Life" (1938); argued for urbanism and claimed density of cities influences behaviors
Frank Lloyd Wright Early advocator of sprawling, decongested, auto-oriented development; authored "Disappearing City" (1932), which presented concept of Broadacre City, where each home situated on an acre or more, and each house has automobile
Henry Wright Designed Radburn, NJ, a “town in which people could live peacefully with the automobile—or rather in spite of it”
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