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1400 Disorders

Psychological Disorders

Psychological disorder Deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms; extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
DSM-IV The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders. Presently distributed in an updated “text revision” (DSM-IV-TR)
Anxiety disorders Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
Generalized anxiety disorder An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
Panic disorder An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.
Phobia An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) An anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience.
Dissociative disorders Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.
Mood disorders Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes.
Major depressive disorder A mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.
Mania A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.
Bipolar disorder A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania.
Schizophrenia A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions.
Delusions False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders.
Personality disorders Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.
Antisocial personality disorder A personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
Psychopathology Any pattern of emotions, behaviors, or thoughts inappropriate to the situation and leading to personal distress or the inability to achieve important goals.
Hallucinations False sensory experiences that may suggest mental disorder. Hallucinations can have other causes, such as drugs or sensory isolation.
Affect A term referring to emotion or mood.
Medical model The view that mental disorders are diseases that, like ordinary physical diseases, have objective physical causes and require specific treatments.
Social-cognitive-behavioral approach A psychological alternative to the medical model that views psychological disorder through a combination of the social, cognitive, and behavioral perspectives.
Neurosis Before the DSM-IV, this term was used as a label for subjective distress or self-defeating behavior that did not show signs of brain abnormalities or grossly irrational thinking.
Psychosis A disorder involving profound disturbances in perception, rational thinking, or affect.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) Technically Seasonal pattern specifier, this DSM-IV course specifier for mood disorders is believed to be a form of depression caused by deprivation of sunlight. The term “Course Specifier” is used to describe how a disorder progresses.
Agoraphobia A fear of public places and open spaces, commonly accompanying panic disorder.
Preparedness hypothesis The notion that we have an innate tendency, acquired through natural selection, to respond quickly and automatically to stimuli that posed a survival threat to our ancestors.
Somatoform disorders Psychological problems appearing in the form of bodily symptoms or physical complaints, such as weakness or excessive worry about disease. The somatoform disorders include conversion disorder and hypochondriasis.
Conversion disorder A type of somatoform disorder, marked by paralysis, weakness, or loss of sensation but with no discernible physical cause.
Hypochondriasis A somatoform disorder involving excessive concern about health and disease; also called hypochondria.
Dissociative disorders A group of pathologies involving “fragmentation” of the personality, in which some parts of the personality have become detached, or dissociated, from other parts.
Dissociative amnesia A psychologically induced loss of memory for personal information, such as one’s identity or residence.
Dissociative fugue Essentially the same as dissociative amnesia, but with the addition of “flight” from one’s home, family, and job. Fugue means “flight.”
Depersonalization disorder An abnormality involving the sensation that mind and body have separated, as in an “out-of-body” experience.
Anorexia nervosa An eating disorder that involves persistent loss of appetite that endangers an individual’s health and stems from emotional or psychological reasons rather than from organic causes.
Bulimia nervosa An eating disorder characterized by eating binges followed by “purges” induced by vomiting or laxatives; typically initiated as a weight-control measure.
Diathesis-stress hypothesis In reference to schizophrenia, the proposal that says that genetic factors place the individual at risk while environmental stress factors transform this potential into an actual schizophrenic disorder.
Narcissistic personality disorder Characterized by a grandiose sense of self-importance, a preoccupation with fantasies of success or power, and a need for constant attention or admiration.
Borderline personality disorder An unstable personality given to impulsive behavior.
Autism A developmental disorder marked by disabilities in language, social interaction, and the ability to understand another person’s state of mind.
Dyslexia A reading disability, thought by some experts to involve a brain disorder.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) A developmental disability involving short attention span, distractibility, and extreme difficulty in remaining inactive for any period.
Insanity A legal term, not a psychological or psychiatric one, referring to a person who is unable, because of a mental disorder or defect, to conform his or her behavior to the law.
Social phobia Fear of a situation in which one could embarrass oneself in public, such as when eating in a restaurant or giving a lecture.
Psychogenic amnesia Condition wherein a person cannot remember things but no physiological basis for the disruption in memory can be identified.
Learned helplessness Occurs when one’s prior experiences have caused a person to view himself or herself as unable to control aspects of the future that are controllable. This belief, then, may result in passivity and depression.
Delusions of persecution Belief that people are out to get you.
Delusions of grandeur Belief that you enjoy greater power and influence than you do.
Disorganized schizophrenia Evidence some odd uses of language. They may make up their own words (neologisms) or string together series of nonsense words that rhyme (clang associations). They often evidence inappropriate affect.
Paranoid schizophrenia The key symptom is delusions of persecution. For example, a man suffering from delusions of persecution would believe that others are trying to hurt him or are out to get him.
Catatonic Schizophrenia People may engage in odd movements. They may remain motionless in strange postures for hours at a time, move jerkily and quickly for no apparent reason, or alternate between the two. When motionless, they may evidence waxy flexibility.
Waxy flexibility When sufferers of catatonic schizophrenia allow their bodies to be moved into any alternative shape and will then hold that new pose.
Undifferentiated schizophrenia Exhibit disordered thinking but no symptoms of one of the other types of schizophrenia.
Dopamine hypothesis States that high levels of dopamine seem to be associated with schizophrenia.
Tardive dyskinesia Muscle tremors and stiffness caused by extensive use of anti-psychotic drugs.
Dependent personality disorder Sufferers rely too much on the attention and help of others.
Paranoid personality disorder Sufferers feel constantly persecuted.
Histrionic personality disorder Sufferers exhibit overly dramatic behavior (histrionics)
Rosenhan study In 1978, David Rosenhan conducted a study in which he and a number of associates sought admission to a number of mental hospitals. All claimed that they had been hearing voices; that was the sole symptom they reported.
Created by: mrcronk
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