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FCC FN 40 Ch. 4-5

Study Guide

What is Glucose? A monosaccharide; sometimes known as blood sugar or dextrose
What is fructose? A monosaccharide; sometimes known as fruit sugar or levulose. Found in fruits, honey and saps
What is Lactose? Disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose; commonly known as milk sugar
What is Glycogen Animal polysaccharide composed of glucose; manufactured and stored in the liver and muscles in form of glucose
What is cellulose polysaccharide, long chain of sugar molecules. purest form is cotton
What plays a major role in the breakdown of certain types of dietary fiber in the large intestine? the normal flora in the large intestine
What primary organ converts fructose to glucose following absorbtion? the liver
what percentage of the world's adult population shows good tolerance to lactose? About 30% of the population
what is the primary function of insulin? to move glucose from the blood into the cells, thus lowering glucose levels
What is the first organ to respond to an increase in blood glucose concentration? The pancreas
What is glucagon? Hormone that is secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to low blood glucose concentration and elicits release of glucose from liver glycogen stores
What is epinephrine? Hormone of the adrenal gland that modulates the stress response; formerly called adrenaline.
what is the predominant sweetener used in formulating beverages? High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)
What is stevia? A herbal sweetner
What is the RDA for carbohydrates? 130g a day
What is the most common form of dietary lipids? triglycerides
What is the chief dietary source of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids? Dairy products
What is a characteristic shared by olive oil and canola oil? they both contain oleic acid, which is monounsaturated fatty acids
what is the impact of partial hydrogenation? Texture changes of the oil, as well as the remaining double bonds are changed from 'cis' to 'trans'
why are phospholipids important? They have a structure that allows it to be both soluble in water and fat. In the body, they are part of cell membranes, in food they are used as emulsifiers to mix fats with water
what types of food contain cholesterol? meats, eggs, fish, poultry, and dairy products
what is the impact of plant sterols? Interfere with cholesterol absorption.
what are chylomicrons? The class of lipoproteins that transport lipids from the intestinal cells to the rest of the body
which lipoprotein contains the highest percentage of cholesterol? Low Density Lipids (LDL)
which lipoprotein is correlated with a high risk of a heart attack? Low Density Lipids (LDL)
what lipoprotein is responsible for transporting cholesterol back to the liver from the periphery? High Density Lipids (HDL)
what are the precursors for synthesis of the eicosanoids?
what is the cholesterol and saturated fat content of eggs? 1g of fat and 200mg of cholesterol
for most adults, what is the recommended minimum amount of fat that should be consumed as a percentage of energy intakes? 20% to 35%
what is the difference in lipid content between livestock that were "free range" (grass fed) compared to feed lot (grain fed) It has lower fat content, and the fat has more polyunsaturated fatty acids, including omega-3
5 Reasons why sugars are used as additives by the food industry Enhances flavor. Supplies texture and color to baked goods. Provide fuel for fermentation. Acts as a bulking agent in ice cream and baked goods. acts as a preservative in jams. Balances acidity.
How is fiber thought to exert an influence over cancer of the colon? dilute, bind, and rapidly remove potential carcinogens. Also, soluble fibers stimulate bacterial fermentation of resistant starch and fiber in the colon, leads to production of short-chain fatty acids that lower the pH =activation of cancerkilling enzimes
5 ways nuts are thought to protect against heart disease abundance in mono and poly unsaturated fats, and very few saturated fats. Valuable nutrients including antioxidants and vitamin E. Plant sterols. phytochemicals interfere with the inflammatory process. decrease platelet aggregration
5 Ways omega-3 fatty acids are thought to protect against heart disease Reducing blood triglycerides. Prevent blood clots. Protect against irregular heart beats. Lower BP. Defend against inflammation.
Created by: toomuchmonster