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Chapter 6 Important Terms

quantitative research measuring variables to obtain scores, usually numerical, that are statistically analyzed for summary and interpretation
qualitative research based on making observations that are summarized and interpreted in a narrative report
research strategy a general approach to research determined by the kind of question that the research study hopes to answer
validity the degree to which the study answers the question it was intended to answer
threat to validity any component of a research study that introduces questions or raises doubts about the quality of the research process or the accuracy of the research results
threat to external validity characteristic of a study that limits the ability to generalize results from a research study
internal validity when a research study produces a single, unambiguous explanation for the relationship between two variables
threat to internal validity any factor in a research study that allows for an alternative explanation
extraneous variable any variable in a research study other than the one being studied
confounding variable extraneous variable that changes systematically with the two variables being studied
assignment bias occurs when the process used to assign different participants to different treatments produces groups of individuals with noticeably different characteristics
history threat to internal validity; outside events that influences the participants scores in one treatment differently than in another treatment
maturation when a group of individuals is being tested in a series of treatment conditions, these are the physiological or psychological changes that occur and influence the participant's score
instrumentation, instrumental bias, instrumental decay changes in the measuring instrument that occur during a research study
testing effects, order effects when the experience of being tested in one treatment condition has an influence on the participants scores in a later treatment condition
statistical regression, regression toward the mean mathematical phenomenon in which extreme scores tend to be less extreme on the second measurement
research design general plan for implementing a research strategy; specifies whether study will involve groups or individual participants, comparisons between groups or within a groups, and how many variables will be included in the study
research procedure an exact, step by step description of a specific research study
descriptive research strategy concerned not with relationships between variables, but rather with the description of individual variables
non-experimental research strategy demonstrates relationship between variables, but does not attempt to explain them
chi square test compare proportions, nonnumerical classifications
t-tests and ANOVA used to evaluate mean differences
selection bias when the sampling procedure favors the selection of some individuals over others
novelty effect individuals may respond differently than if they were in the real world
carry over effects people in studies may use experience from previous tests to improve scores in later tests
Created by: 1355917960
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