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PCT Exam 3

where is aqueous humor formed? cilliary body
what is anterior to the anterior chamber? posterior? cornea; lens
2 ways aqueous humor leaves the eye filtration thru trabecular meshwork & thru cilliary body and suprachoroidal space
what causes aqueous humor to flow btw the iris and lens then into the anterior chamber? pressure
what is the most common type of glaucoma? primary open angle
Normal IOP 10-20mmHg
what type of relationship is there btw high IOP and vision loss? poor
measures IOP tonometry
examines anterior chamber angle gonioscopy
evaluates peripheral vision fields perimetry
measures corneal thickness pachymetry
when is IOP highest throughout the day? lowest? AM; 6:00pm
if you have a thick cornea you may get a false what? high IOP
chronic, slow progression, 90-95% of all primary glaucomas, patients >50, assymptomatic open-angle glaucoma
normal cup-to-disc ratio 0.5
as "cup" gets larger what is indicated? more cells are dead which leads to more vision loss
patients with inherited shallow anterior chambers, sudden increase in IOP (>40mmHg), medical emergency closed angle
initial target IOP reduction 30%
usually during surgery in glaucoma patients, what will they receive to keep the IOP down? osmotic agent (IV mannitol or PO glycerin)
what drug can cause a precipitant to form with thimerisol? lantoprost (Prostaglandin analog)
what drug is reserved for patients with aphakia/psuedophakia? cholinesterase inhibitors (echothiphate)
3 types of dementias alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and mixed dementia
most common type of dementia, has a slow and gradual onset alzheimer's
type of dementia associated with heart disease, HTN, clots, stroke, and has a quick onset vascular dementia
second most common type of dementia lewy body type
survival after onset of dementia average = 8 years
pathophysiology in dementia, cell death occurs where? there is a loss of what enzyme? hippocampus; acetyltransferase
where do dementia drugs work? synapse (useful earlier)
3 abnormal proteins associated with alz. dementia? what do they cause? apolipoprotein, tau protein, & beta amyloid protein; neurofibrillary tangles & neuritic plaques
what protein is associated with alzheimer's type dementia before age 65 apoE4
proteins in the blood that serve as a carrier of cholesterol and has been discovered in the brains of AD patients apolipoproteins
apoE4 causes degeneration of what protein that then causes neurofibrillary tangles? tau protein
normally a soluble protein until it combines with apoE4, then it forms plaque formation beta amyloid protein
delicate thread that runs in thru the cytoplasm of a nerve cell and extends into the axon and dendrite neurofibril
Created by: templets