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SOC 100- Unit 1

4 perspectives on human life biological, psychological, social, cultural
interpenetration each higher level (BPSC) can affect those below it
emergence each higher level is influenced by those below it
the sociological imagination the ability to see the relationship between individual and the larger society
____are transformed into____ personal problems, public issues
functionalist society viewed as a stable, orderly system
conflict groups in society are engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources
inter-related parts; group as a whole, responsible for failures functionalist
social inequality, competition among parts, not responsible for failures conflict
symbolic-interaction approach interpersonal communication in micro-level social settings (how people create reality)
ways of knowing (5) faith, authority, tradition, ESP, science
assumptions (2) all perceptions are achieved through the senses; people can trust their perceptions, memory, and reasoning
sociology the study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior
spurious correlation a trivial or meaningless correlation
ultimate vs. scientific truth sociologists use science to establish scientific truth
culture the ways of thinking, acting, and material objects that together form a people's way of life
to be material culture... it has to be useful & important to us (tractors in India)
nonmaterial culture (4) symbols, languages, values, norms
material culture the physical creations that members of a society make, use, and share
symbols/gestures anything meaningful that represents something else
illustrators enhance speech
emblems a picture that represents a concept
obscene gestures angry, homosexual, infidelity
language a set of symbols that expresses ideas and enables people to think and communicate with one another
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis language shapes the view of reality of its speakers "different languages=different worlds"
values ideas about what is right/wrong, good/bad, desirable/undesirable in a particular culture
examples of values freedom, equality, achievement, group superiority
who watched the superbowl? 3/4 of class, 264 nations, 1 billion people
Superbowl lecture conflict perspective (some benefitted, some didn't)
reason for college in '69 vs now meaningful philosophy vs. well off financially (raising a family-> stable)
norms established rules of behavior
mores norms that may NOT be violated w/out serious consequences
folkways norms that MAY be violated w/out serious consequences
laws written norms
___% of the class thinks things have gotten worse (in the US) in the past decade 61% (majority)
subculture cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society's population (jazz musicians, computer nerds)
counterculture cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society (KKK, flower children)
ethnocentrism the practice of judging another's culture by the standards of one's own; assuming one's way of life is superior to others' good for being patriotic
cultural relativism the process of evaluating a culture by its own standards (not necessarily embracing it) good for understanding others
sociobiological perspective the large number of cultural universals reflects that we are all one species; random variation occurs to create a "dominant"
sociobiological example men are promiscuous (more than women) because they can easily spread their genes
queen anne game concept we use learning experiences to solve new problems, but once we have learned in a particular way, it is difficult to change the way we solve them
nature the study of how biology affects human behavior
nurture the study of how leaning affects human behavior
socialization the lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture (we internalize culture- it limits our choices)
nature/nurture sociobiologists vs. sociologists sociobiologists- close to middle (closer to nurture) sociologists- almost completely nurture
Kinch's self concept theory individual's perception->self concept->behavior->response of others (repeat)
in Kinch's self concept theory, how do you change it? change your behavior
Cooley's looking glass self a self image based on how we think others see us
can we see the world objectively? sociologists: no!
when does personality develop? ober the entire life of the individual
4 agents of socialization family, school, peers, mass media (new)
industrialized maturity occurs over a long period of time compared to technologically simple societies
how many people watch TV everyday? ~3/4
what % of leisure time is spent watching TV? 40%
____hours of TV per day 2.5
____hours of TV per day (2-3 year olds) 4.4
resocialization the process by which people abandon their old selves and develop new ones
voluntary resocialization willingly changing habits
involuntary resocialization an outside influence changes your habits
total institution a place where people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time and come under the control of officials
examples of involuntary resocialization prisons, mental hospitals, sequestered juries, POW camps
how did the Chinese brainwash POWs? used their values against them-> blacks, leaders removed; secrets revealed (turned against one another); many died of depression/illness
Created by: melaniebeale