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AP Psych 6

Chapter 6

TermDefinition
learning lasting change in behavior or mental processes that results from experience
habituation learning not to respond to the repeated presentation of a stimulus
mere exposure effect learned preference for stimuli to which we have been previously exposed
behavioral learning forms of learning that can be described int terms of stimuli and response
classical conditioning a form of behavioral learning in which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the power to elicit the same innate reflex produced by another stimulus
neutral stimulus any stimulus that produces no conditioned response prior to learning. it means nothing unless you learn it means something (the bell with the dog)
unconditioned stimulus (UCS) stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response (the drooling at the food--food is UCS)
unconditioned response response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning (instinct)
acquisition initial learning stage in classical condition during which the conditioned response comes to be elicited by the conditioned stimulus. a neutral stimulus is paired with unconditioned stimulus
conditioned stimulus a neutral stimulus elicits a conditioned response. when the neutral stimulus is paired with the unconditioned stimulus (the tone means food in the dog's head hence the dog salivates)
conditioned response a response elicited by the conditioned stimulus (the dog salivating at the tone--learned)
where is timing important in classical conditioning timing the presence of the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus (the tone and the food must be happen continuously so that pairing and learning can happen)
when does learning occur in classical conditioning when the neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus
what is a weakness of classical conditioning susceptible to extinction
extinction (classical conditioning) the weakening of a conditioned response in the absence of an unconditioned stimulus (when you take the food away after a while the dog will stop salivating at the tone)
spontaneous recovery the reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after a delay. after some period of extinction you ring the bell and the dog suddenly salivates
stimulus generalization extensions of a learned response to a stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus
association connecting of events that occur in sequence
who is responsible for classical conditioning ivan pavlov
what are the three types of learning conditioning, social learning, and cognitive learning. social and cognitive is how humans learn while animals mostly learn through conditioning
who was responsible for taste aversion john garcia
taste aversion biological tendency in which organisms learn after a single experience to avoid a food with certain test, if eating is followed b illness
operant conditioning a form of behavioral learning where the probability of a response is changed by its consequences
law of effect the idea that reponses that produced desirable results would be learned, or stamped into the organism
consequences element that follows a behavior. basis of instrumental and operant conditioning. behavior is affected by types of consequences
reinforcers stimulus that follows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
punishers stimulus that follows a behavior that decreases the likelihood that the behaviour will be repeated
positive reinforcement addition of a stimulus after a response. for example giving gifts, rewards
negative reinforcement removing an unpleasant or aversive stimulus. to stop the nagging of mother you listen to her
primary reinforcement something naturally reinforcing. the item is reinforcing in and of itself. food, water, warmth, sex, basic survival stuff are primary reinforcements
secondary reinforcements conditioned reinforcements. something that a person has learned to value or finds rewarding. materialistic items (diamond rings)
punishment suppress behavior. does not teach new desirable behaviors. if the punishment is removed then negative behavior will most likely reoccur. you learn not to get caught
positive punishment an aversive stimulus is added after a response. getting beat
negative punishment omission training. removal of a positive stimulus. taking away things like phone or tv
reinforcement contingencies relationships between a response and the changes in stimulation that follow the response
continuous reinforcement every correct response is reinforced. giving a dog a treat every time it sits on command. susceptible to extinction
intermittnet reinforcement some, but not all, correct responses are reinforced. partial reinforcement. giving a dog every couple of tricks it does. resistant to extinction
shaping an operant learnign technique in which a new behavior is produced by reinforcing reponses that are similar to the desired response. getting the rat to press the lever. what we did in class
chaining learning of a sequence of responses through shaping, to form a fomplex behavior. having the rat push the lever and pull a string
token economy a therapuetic method, based on operant conditioning by which individuals are rewarded with token,s which act as a secondary reinforcers. the tokens can be redeemed for a variety of rewards and privileges
drawbacks to punishment can stir unpleasant emotions that impose learning, may convey that its ok to punish others
punishment should be immediate or delayed? immediate
extinction (operant conditioning) process by which a response that has been learned is weakened by the absence or removal or reinforcement
schedules programs specifying the frequency and timing of reinforcements
ratio schedules program where reinforcement depends on number of correct responses
interval schedules program by which reinforcements depends on time interval elapsed since last reinforcement
immediate reinforcement vs delayed reinforcement immediate is more effective for small things while delayed is usually used for higher achievements (college degrees)
fixed ratio schedule partial reinforcement. rewards a response after some defined number of correct responses. after a certain number of widgets produced you get paid
fixed interval schedule partial reinforcement. rewards only the first correct response after some defined period of time.
variable interval schedule partial. rewards the first correct reponse after an unpredictable amount of time. very resistant to extinction
variable ratio schedule partial. rewards an unpredictable number of correct responses. gambler schedule. very resistant to extinction
who camee up with operant conditioning skinner
insight learning kohler. form of cognitive learning originally described by the gestalt psychologists, in which problem solving occurs by means of sudden reorganization of perceptions
cognitive maps mental rep of physical space
who came up with social and observation learning bandura
observational learning form of cognitive learning in which new responses are acquired after watching others' behavior and the consequences of their behavior
social learning theory people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people. Known as observational learning (or modeling), this type of learning can be used to explain a wide variety of behaviors.
modeling form of learning where individuals ascertain how to act or perform by observing another individual. knowing how to act around your friends by watching a popular friend act
latent learning learning that occurs without visual proof until there is some reinforcement or incentive to demonstrate it. you sit and stare all semester in class and ace the midterm, there was no evidence you learned anything until you aced the midterm
aversive conditioning use of something unpleasant to stop an unwanted behavior. often used with addiction problems
Created by: LittleD331