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Social Psych Ch 02

Social Psych Chapter 2

Conditions of Uncertainty Where the "correct" answer is difficult to know or would take a great deal of effort to determine
Prototype Consisting of the attributes possessed by other members of each of these occupations
Representativeness Heuristic A strategy for making judgements based on the extent to which current stimuli or events resemble other stimuli or categories
Base Rates The frequency with which given events or patterns occur in the total population
Availability Heuristic A strategy for making judgements on the basis of how easily specific kinds of info can br brought to mind
Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic that involves the tendency to use a number of value as a starting point to which we then make adjustments
Schemas Mental frameworks that help us to organize social info, and that guide our actions and the processing of info relevant to those contexts
Attention What info we notice
Encoding The processes through which info we notice gets stored in memory
Retrieval The processes through which we recover info from memory in order to use it in some manner
Cognitive Load When we are trying to handle a lot of info at one time
Priming A situation that occurs when stimuli or events increase the availability in memory or consciousness of specific types of info held in memory
Unpriming Refers to the fact that the effects of the schemas tend to persist until they are somehow expressed in thought or behavior and only then do their effects decrease
Perseverance Effect The tendency for beliefs and schemas to remain unchanged even in the face of contradictory information
Metaphors Linguistic devices that relate a typically abstract concept to another dissimilar concept
Automatic Processing Occurs when, after extensive experience with a task or type of info, we reach the stage where we can perform the task or process the info in a seemingly effortless, automatic, and nonconscious manner
Optimistic Bias A powerful predisposition to overlook risks and expect things to turn out well
Overconfidence Barrier The tendency to have more confidence in the accuracy of our own judgements than is reasonable
Counterfactual Thinking The tendency to imagine other outcomes in a situation than the ones that actually occurred; "What might have been"
Magical Thinking Thinking involving assumptions that don't hold up to rational scrutiny
Terror Management Our efforts to come to terms with certainty of our own death and its unsettling implications
Law of Similarity law that suggests that things that resemble one another share basic properties
Mood Congruence Effects The fact that we are more likely to store or remember positive info when in a positive mood and negative info when in a negative mood
Mood Dependent Memory The fact that what we remember while in a given mood may be determined, in part, by what we learned when previously in that mood
Affective Forecasts Predictions about how we would feel about an event we have not experienced
Created by: mobrien606