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Polta test 1

Humerus, shoulder girdle and lower limb through ankle

QuestionAnswer
The shoulder girdle consists of what? Proximal humerus,scapula and clavicle
What are the 3 aspects of the clavicle? Acromial extremity, body and sternal extremity
Does a male or female clavicle tend to be thicker and more curved? Male
What are the 3 angles of the scapula? Superior, inferior and lateral angles
The anterior surface of the scapula is referre to as the ____________ surface. Costal
What is the anatomic name for the armpit? Axila
Name the 2 fossae located on the posterior scapula? Supraspinous and infraspinous fossae
All the joints of the shoulder girdle are classified as being what type? Synovial
The scapulohumeral joint has ______________ movement Spheroidal
The sternoclavicular joint has ______________ movement. double plane
The acromioclavicular joint has ________________ movement. Plane
Where is the greater tubercle located? Proximal humerus
Where is the corocoid process located? Scapula
Where is the crest of spine located? Scapula
Where is the acromial extremity located? Clavicle
Where is the intertubercular groove located? Proximal humerus
Where is the surgical neck located? Proximal humerus
What proximal humerus rotation has the greater tubercle profiled laterally? External rotation
What proximal humerus rotation has the humeral epicondyles angled 45 degrees to the IR? Neutral rotation
What proximal humerus rotation has the epicondyles perpendicular to the IR? Internal rotation
What proximal humerus rotation has the hand supinated? External rotation
What proximal humerus rotation has the palm of the hand against the thigh? Neutral rotation
What proximal humerus rotation has the epicondyles parallel to the IR? External rotation
What proximal humerus rotation has the lesser tubercle profiled medially? Internal rotation
What proximal humerus rotation has the proximal humerus in a lateral position? Internal rotation
What proximal humerus rotation has the proximal humerus in position for an AP projection? External rotation
T/F - The use of a grid is not required for shoulders that measure less than 10 cm True
T/F - The kV range for adult shoulder projections is 80-90 False
T/F - A large focal spot should be used for most adult shoulder studies False
What SID should be used for most shoulder girdle studies? 40 inches
What kV range should be used for a shoulder series on an average adult? 70 - 80 kV
What 2 basic shoulder projections are routinely taken for a shoulder and proximal humerus? AP with internal rotation and AP with external rotation.
Where is the CR placed for an AP projection of the shoulder? 1 inch inferior to the corocoid process
What CR angulation is required for the inferosuperior axial projection? 25 - 30 degrees medially
The AP posterior oblique - glenoid cavity projection is also known as the _________ method. Grashey
What obliquity is required for the Grashey Method? 35 - 45 degrees
Where is the CR placed for the Grashey Method? 2 inches inferior and medial from superolateral border of humerus.
For the tangential projection - intertuberular groove (Fisk modification), what is the required angle of the humerus? 10 - 15 degrees from vertical
For the tangential projection - intertuberular groove supine position, what is the required angulation of the CR? 10 - 15 degrees posterior from horizontal
For the Superoinferior axial projection (Hobbs modification), what is the obliquity required? 5 - 10 degrees anterior oblique
For the Superoinferior axial projection (Hobbs modification),where is the CR placed? Perpendicular to IR, and through the glenohumeral joint
How is the patient positioned for the inferosuperior axial projection (Clements modification)? CR is placed where? Lateral recumbant position with arm abducted 90 degrees. CR is perpendicular through Axilla.
If the patient cannot abduct the arm 90 degrees for the inferosuperior axial projection (Clements modification, what is the CR angulation required? 10 - 15 degrees to axilla
What is the CR angulation required for the AP axial clavicle? 15 degrees for hypersthenic - 30 degrees for asthenic
What is the SID and CR placement for the AC joint projections? 72 inch SID, CR perpendicular and at the level of the AC joints.
How long should the patient hold the weights for the AC projection with weights? 5 minutes
What is the patient position for the AP scapula? Erect, abduct arm 90 degrees and supinate hand up by forehead.
Where is the CR located for an AP scapula? 2 inches inferior to corocoid process and 2 inches medial to lateral scapular border.
How is the patient positioned for the lateral scapula? Erect, affected arm across chest or behind back 45 - 60 degrees anterior oblique to get scapula in true lateral position.
for the lateral scapula (recumbant position), what is the obliquity required? Approximately 30 degrees posterior oblique.
How many bones are in the phalanges of the foot? 14
How many bones are in the tarsals of the foot? Name them. 7 Calcaneus, Talus, Cuboid, Navicular and the medial, intermediate and lateral cuniforms.
How many bones are in the metatarsals of the foot? 5
What are the 4 motions of the foot and ankle? Dorsoflexion, plantarflexion, inversion (varus) and exversion (vagus)
Which tuberosity of the foot is palpable and a common site of foot trauma? Tuberosity at base of 5th metatarsal.
Where are the sesamoid bones of the foot most commonly located? Plantar surface close to the 1st MTP joint
What is the largest and strongest tarsal bone? Calcaneus
Name the joint between the talus and calcaneus. Subtalar or talocalsaneal joint
List the 3 articular facets found in the talocalcaneal joint. Posterior facet, anterior facet and middle facet
What is the small opening, or space, found in the middle of the subtalar joint? Sinus tarsi
T/F - The cuboid articulates with the 4 bones of the foot True
The calcaneus articulates with the talus and the ___________. Cuboid
List the 2 arches of the foot. Longitudinal and transverse
What 3 bones make up the ankle joint? Talus, Tibia and fibula
The 3 bones of the ankle form a deep pocket into which the talus fits called the ____________ _________. Ankle mortise
The ankle joint is classified as what type of joint? Synovial joint with sellar type movement.
For an AP toe projection, what is the recommended CR angle? 0 - 15 degrees. (Bontrager recommends 10 - 15 degrees)
Where is the CR placed for AP toes? The MTP joint of that digit.
For oblique toes, what direction of rotation should you use for all 5 digits? Medial rotation for digits 1 and 2, Lateral rotation for digits 4 and 5, either for digit 3
What obliquity is required for oblique toes? 30 - 45 degrees
For lateral toes, what direction of rotation should you use for all 5 digits? Medial rotation for digits 1, 2 and 3, Lateral rotation for digits 4 and 5
Why is the CR angled 10 - 15 degrees toward the calcaneus for AP toes? Opens up the IP and MTP joints.
Where is the CR placed for an AP projection of the foot? Base of the 3rd metacarpal
What is the CR angle required for an AP projection of the foot? 10 degrees posteriorly
How much rotation should there be for a medial oblique foot? 30 - 40 degree medial rotation - plane of dorsum of foot should be parallel to the IR.
How should the CR be positioned for a medial oblique foot? Perpendicular to IR at the base of the 3rd metatarsal.
How should the foot be positioned for a Lateral foot? Mediolateral position with foot dorsoflexed to make 90 degree angle. Plantar surface should be perpendicular to IR.
Where should the CR be placed for the lateral foot? Perpendicular to IR at the medial cuniform.
How should the patient be positioned for an AP ankle? Supine or seated with leg extended and foot dorsiflexed to 90 degrees. (Bontrager says do not dorsiflex)
Where should the CR be placed for an AP ankle? Perpendicular to IR, midway between malleoli.
How much should the foot and ankle be rotated for an AP mortise projection of the ankle? 15 - 20 degrees, or until the intermalleolar line is parallel to the IR.
How much rotation should be used for an oblique ankle? 45 degrees medial rotation.
How should the patient be positioned for a lateral ankle? Lateral recumbant laying on affected side, knee flexed with other leg behind affected limb. Dorsiflex foot to 90 degrees.
Where should the CR be placed for a lateral ankle? Perpendicular to IR at the medial malleolus.
With a true lateral projection of the ankle, the lateral malleolus is projected where? Over the posterior aspect of the distal tibia.
Which projections require forced inversion and eversion movements? AP stress projections.
Created by: 1314500233