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# Polta test 1

### Humerus, shoulder girdle and lower limb through ankle

Question | Answer |
---|---|

The shoulder girdle consists of what? | Proximal humerus,scapula and clavicle |

What are the 3 aspects of the clavicle? | Acromial extremity, body and sternal extremity |

Does a male or female clavicle tend to be thicker and more curved? | Male |

What are the 3 angles of the scapula? | Superior, inferior and lateral angles |

The anterior surface of the scapula is referre to as the ____________ surface. | Costal |

What is the anatomic name for the armpit? | Axila |

Name the 2 fossae located on the posterior scapula? | Supraspinous and infraspinous fossae |

All the joints of the shoulder girdle are classified as being what type? | Synovial |

The scapulohumeral joint has ______________ movement | Spheroidal |

The sternoclavicular joint has ______________ movement. | double plane |

The acromioclavicular joint has ________________ movement. | Plane |

Where is the greater tubercle located? | Proximal humerus |

Where is the corocoid process located? | Scapula |

Where is the crest of spine located? | Scapula |

Where is the acromial extremity located? | Clavicle |

Where is the intertubercular groove located? | Proximal humerus |

Where is the surgical neck located? | Proximal humerus |

What proximal humerus rotation has the greater tubercle profiled laterally? | External rotation |

What proximal humerus rotation has the humeral epicondyles angled 45 degrees to the IR? | Neutral rotation |

What proximal humerus rotation has the epicondyles perpendicular to the IR? | Internal rotation |

What proximal humerus rotation has the hand supinated? | External rotation |

What proximal humerus rotation has the palm of the hand against the thigh? | Neutral rotation |

What proximal humerus rotation has the epicondyles parallel to the IR? | External rotation |

What proximal humerus rotation has the lesser tubercle profiled medially? | Internal rotation |

What proximal humerus rotation has the proximal humerus in a lateral position? | Internal rotation |

What proximal humerus rotation has the proximal humerus in position for an AP projection? | External rotation |

T/F - The use of a grid is not required for shoulders that measure less than 10 cm | True |

T/F - The kV range for adult shoulder projections is 80-90 | False |

T/F - A large focal spot should be used for most adult shoulder studies | False |

What SID should be used for most shoulder girdle studies? | 40 inches |

What kV range should be used for a shoulder series on an average adult? | 70 - 80 kV |

What 2 basic shoulder projections are routinely taken for a shoulder and proximal humerus? | AP with internal rotation and AP with external rotation. |

Where is the CR placed for an AP projection of the shoulder? | 1 inch inferior to the corocoid process |

What CR angulation is required for the inferosuperior axial projection? | 25 - 30 degrees medially |

The AP posterior oblique - glenoid cavity projection is also known as the _________ method. | Grashey |

What obliquity is required for the Grashey Method? | 35 - 45 degrees |

Where is the CR placed for the Grashey Method? | 2 inches inferior and medial from superolateral border of humerus. |

For the tangential projection - intertuberular groove (Fisk modification), what is the required angle of the humerus? | 10 - 15 degrees from vertical |

For the tangential projection - intertuberular groove supine position, what is the required angulation of the CR? | 10 - 15 degrees posterior from horizontal |

For the Superoinferior axial projection (Hobbs modification), what is the obliquity required? | 5 - 10 degrees anterior oblique |

For the Superoinferior axial projection (Hobbs modification),where is the CR placed? | Perpendicular to IR, and through the glenohumeral joint |

How is the patient positioned for the inferosuperior axial projection (Clements modification)? CR is placed where? | Lateral recumbant position with arm abducted 90 degrees. CR is perpendicular through Axilla. |

If the patient cannot abduct the arm 90 degrees for the inferosuperior axial projection (Clements modification, what is the CR angulation required? | 10 - 15 degrees to axilla |

What is the CR angulation required for the AP axial clavicle? | 15 degrees for hypersthenic - 30 degrees for asthenic |

What is the SID and CR placement for the AC joint projections? | 72 inch SID, CR perpendicular and at the level of the AC joints. |

How long should the patient hold the weights for the AC projection with weights? | 5 minutes |

What is the patient position for the AP scapula? | Erect, abduct arm 90 degrees and supinate hand up by forehead. |

Where is the CR located for an AP scapula? | 2 inches inferior to corocoid process and 2 inches medial to lateral scapular border. |

How is the patient positioned for the lateral scapula? | Erect, affected arm across chest or behind back 45 - 60 degrees anterior oblique to get scapula in true lateral position. |

for the lateral scapula (recumbant position), what is the obliquity required? | Approximately 30 degrees posterior oblique. |

How many bones are in the phalanges of the foot? | 14 |

How many bones are in the tarsals of the foot? Name them. | 7 Calcaneus, Talus, Cuboid, Navicular and the medial, intermediate and lateral cuniforms. |

How many bones are in the metatarsals of the foot? | 5 |

What are the 4 motions of the foot and ankle? | Dorsoflexion, plantarflexion, inversion (varus) and exversion (vagus) |

Which tuberosity of the foot is palpable and a common site of foot trauma? | Tuberosity at base of 5th metatarsal. |

Where are the sesamoid bones of the foot most commonly located? | Plantar surface close to the 1st MTP joint |

What is the largest and strongest tarsal bone? | Calcaneus |

Name the joint between the talus and calcaneus. | Subtalar or talocalsaneal joint |

List the 3 articular facets found in the talocalcaneal joint. | Posterior facet, anterior facet and middle facet |

What is the small opening, or space, found in the middle of the subtalar joint? | Sinus tarsi |

T/F - The cuboid articulates with the 4 bones of the foot | True |

The calcaneus articulates with the talus and the ___________. | Cuboid |

List the 2 arches of the foot. | Longitudinal and transverse |

What 3 bones make up the ankle joint? | Talus, Tibia and fibula |

The 3 bones of the ankle form a deep pocket into which the talus fits called the ____________ _________. | Ankle mortise |

The ankle joint is classified as what type of joint? | Synovial joint with sellar type movement. |

For an AP toe projection, what is the recommended CR angle? | 0 - 15 degrees. (Bontrager recommends 10 - 15 degrees) |

Where is the CR placed for AP toes? | The MTP joint of that digit. |

For oblique toes, what direction of rotation should you use for all 5 digits? | Medial rotation for digits 1 and 2, Lateral rotation for digits 4 and 5, either for digit 3 |

What obliquity is required for oblique toes? | 30 - 45 degrees |

For lateral toes, what direction of rotation should you use for all 5 digits? | Medial rotation for digits 1, 2 and 3, Lateral rotation for digits 4 and 5 |

Why is the CR angled 10 - 15 degrees toward the calcaneus for AP toes? | Opens up the IP and MTP joints. |

Where is the CR placed for an AP projection of the foot? | Base of the 3rd metacarpal |

What is the CR angle required for an AP projection of the foot? | 10 degrees posteriorly |

How much rotation should there be for a medial oblique foot? | 30 - 40 degree medial rotation - plane of dorsum of foot should be parallel to the IR. |

How should the CR be positioned for a medial oblique foot? | Perpendicular to IR at the base of the 3rd metatarsal. |

How should the foot be positioned for a Lateral foot? | Mediolateral position with foot dorsoflexed to make 90 degree angle. Plantar surface should be perpendicular to IR. |

Where should the CR be placed for the lateral foot? | Perpendicular to IR at the medial cuniform. |

How should the patient be positioned for an AP ankle? | Supine or seated with leg extended and foot dorsiflexed to 90 degrees. (Bontrager says do not dorsiflex) |

Where should the CR be placed for an AP ankle? | Perpendicular to IR, midway between malleoli. |

How much should the foot and ankle be rotated for an AP mortise projection of the ankle? | 15 - 20 degrees, or until the intermalleolar line is parallel to the IR. |

How much rotation should be used for an oblique ankle? | 45 degrees medial rotation. |

How should the patient be positioned for a lateral ankle? | Lateral recumbant laying on affected side, knee flexed with other leg behind affected limb. Dorsiflex foot to 90 degrees. |

Where should the CR be placed for a lateral ankle? | Perpendicular to IR at the medial malleolus. |

With a true lateral projection of the ankle, the lateral malleolus is projected where? | Over the posterior aspect of the distal tibia. |

Which projections require forced inversion and eversion movements? | AP stress projections. |

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