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Management 300 exam

QuestionAnswer
The four function of management Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling
Management the attainment of Organisational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, Organising, leading, and Controlling organizational resources.
Managers set goals, Organize activities, motivate and Communicate, measure performance, and develop people.
Planning Identifying the goals of future organizational performance and deciding on the task and use of resources to achieve them
Leading The use of influence to motivate employees to achieve goals.
Organizing following the planning and reflects how organization trees accomplish the plan
Controlliong Monitoring the employees activities, determining whether the organization is on target toward its goal.
Organiztion a sociatl entity that is delibrately structured and goal directed
Effectiveness the degree at which the organization achieves stated goals
efficiency refers to the amount of resource used to achieve the goal
performance the ability to attain goals by using resources efficiently and effectively.
types of managing skills conceptual skills, human skills and technical skills
Conceptual skill The ability to see the organization as a whole system and the relationship among the parts
Human skills the ability of a manager to work with and through people to work effectively as a group member
Technical skill the understand and proficiency in the performance of specific task.
Top down Levels of managers First Level, Middle, and top Managers.
First level manangers focuses more on individual employees performance, need a lot more technical skills and human skills
Middle managers place the plan of action set by top managers across the organization. they are more concerned with linking groups of people and allocating resources
Top Managers these managers make the organization plan of action, they are more focus in monitoring environment and determining ways to be more competitive.
Project managers these managers do temporary work that involves people of different department or even outside the organization.
Horizontal managers Functional managers, line managers, staff managers, general managers
Functional managers are responsible for department that perform a single task and have employees with similar skills
Line Managers are responsible for the manufacturing and marketing department that makes or sells product or services
Staff managers are in charge of department such as finance and human resources that support line department
General managers they are responsible for several department that perform different functions.
Role a set of expectation for managers behaviors.
Interim Managers managers that are not affiliated with the particular organization but work on a project of this organization.
Jugaad Refers to innovation mind set, term used by indan firms
Social forces aspect of culture that guides and influences relationships among people.
Social contract Unwritten rules and perception about relationship among people between employee and management
Economic forces Pretain to the availability, production and distribution of resources in a society.
Scientific management emphasizes scientifically determined jobs and managemnt practices as the way to improve efficiency and labor productivity. Putting people in position were they perform best.
Unit of command each subordinate receive order from one superior
division of work managerial work and technical work are amenable to specialization to produce more and better work with the same amount of effort
Unity of direction similar activities should be grouped together under one manager
scalar chain a chain of authority extends from the top to the bottom of the organization and should include every employee
Human perspective Emphasizes the importance of understanding human behaviors, needs, and attitudes in the workplace as well as social interaction and group processes
Leadership The ability to influence people toward the attainment of organizational goals.
Four contemporary leadership approaches Level 5, servant, authentic, and interactive.
Level 5 Leadership Transforming a company form merely good to exceptional. They have humility and strong will
Servant Leadership Transcend self interest to serve others and the organization. Mostly work in non profit sector
Authentic Leadership know and understand themselves and act with higher ethical values. they respect diverse viewpoints, encourage collabortionand help others to learn, grow, and develop as leadears
Interactive Leadership Leader that favor a consensual and collaborative process and influence derives from relationship rather than position.
Consideration Term used in Ohio state, to describe how a leader is sensitive to subordinate, respects their ideas and feelings and establishes mutual trust
Initiating structure goal oriented leader, that can direct subordinate toward a goal and accomplishment.
Job Centered leadership (Univ. of Michigan) low goal achievement and human needs, keep cost low , and achieving product efficiency
Employee centered Leadership (Michigan) high performance goals, and supportive behavior toward subordiante
Leadership grid a tow dimensional leadership model that measures the leaders concern for people and concern for production to cut arise you doing in 1 of 5 different leadership styles.
Contigency approach explores how the organizational situation influences leaders effectiveness
situational model focuses attention on the characteistics of followers in determining approriate leadership behavior.
Fiedler contingency theorry Task oriented , relationship oriented
Charismatic leaders Have the ability to inspire and motivate people to do more then they would normally do despite obstacles and personal sacrifice, they are visionary of the future
Transactional leader Clarify the role and task requirement with subordinates, provide appropriate reward, and try to be considerate and meet social needs
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS have the ability to bring about innovation and change by recognizing followers needs and concern, providing meaning, challenging people to look at old problem in a new way and acting as a role model for the new values and behavior.
Legitimate power Power coming from management position
Reward power authority to bestow rewards on others
coercive power authority ot punish or recommend punishment
position power Legitimate, reward, coercive.
Personal power expert and referent
expert power resulting form personal skills and knowledge
referent power comes from individuals personal characteristics that command others identification, respect and admiration
attitude a cognitive and affective predipose a person to act in a certain way. an evaluation either positive or negative that predisposes a person to act a particular wa
Component of Attitude Cognition, affect, behavior.
Cognition beliefs, opinios and information a personhas about the object of the attitude such as knowledge of what a job entails and opiniosnabout personal abilities
affect persons emotions about the object of the attitede
Behavior intension to behave toward the object of the attitude
self efficacy assurance that one can complete a task.
Organizational citizenship the tendency of people to hlep one another and put in extra effort that goes beyond job requirement.
Organizational behavior filed dedicated to the study of human attitudes, behavior and performance
Organizational commitment employee's loyalty to an engagement with the org.
cognitive dissonance a psychological discomfort that occurs when idndividual recognizes inconsistencies in their own attitudes and behaviors
Perception Cognitive process people use to make sense out of the environment by selecting, organizing and interpreting information from the environment
Perceptual distortion Erros in the perceptual judgment that arises from inaccuracies in any part of the perceptual process
Perceptual selectivity process by which indiv. subconsciously screen and select the various objects and stimuli tha tvie for their attention.
Halo effect occurs when the perceiver develops an overall impression of a person based on one characteristic. Ex good attendance.
Projection perceiver sees their own personal trait in others
Perceptual defense perceiver project themselve against the ideas of others.
attribution judgment about what caused a persons behavior; internal or external attribution.
Perosonality a set of characteristics that underlie a relatively stable pattern of behavior in respose to ideas, objcts ,a or people in the environment.
authoritaianism belief that power and status differences exist in the organization
machiavellianism acquisition of power and manipulating individuals for purely personal gain
Learnign A change in behavior or performance that occurs as a result of experience.
Type A Behavior Extreme competitiveness, impatience, aggressiveness, and devotion to work
Type B Behavior less conflict with others and more balance and relax lifestyle.
role ambiguity uncertainty about what behaviors are expected of a person in a particular role
role conflict incompatible, demand different roles
motivation the force either within or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to persue a certain course of action
ERG theory Need for existence, relatedness, growth.
acquired needs need for achievement, affiliation and power
Goal setting theory managers can increase motivation and enhance performance by setting specific, challenging goers, then helpign people track their progress towards goals achiement by providing timely feedback
Equity theory focuses on individual perception of how fairly they are treated compared to others
Expectancy theory Proposes that motivation depends on individuals expectation about their ability to perform task and receive their reward
social learning therory related to the reinforcement perspective, but it proposes that individuals motivation can result of not just from direct experience of rewards and punishment but also from the person's thoughts and belief and his or her observation of others
Created by: Jylkasonga
 

 



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