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XR 103 final exam

QuestionAnswer
1. what is the name of the bones that comprise the digits of the hand? phalanges
2. how many bones are normally found in each of the digits 2-5? 3
3. the bones that are located in the palm of the hand are called? metacarpals
4. which carpal bone is located in the proximal row on the lateral side? scaphoid or navicular same bone, 2 different names!!
5. which carpal bone is located in the distal row, on the medial side? hamate
6. which carpal bone has a characteristic hooklike process on it's anterior surface? hamate
7. which carpal bone articulates with the first metacarpal? trapezium
8. the bones of the forearm are called radius ulna
9. which bone of the forearm is located on the medial side? ulna
10. where is the radial tuberosity located? at the proximal end, distal to the head of the radius
11. where is the humerus located? in the upper portion of the arm
12. where is the olecranon (o-leck-cra-non) process located? at the proximal end of the ulna
13. what structure is located at the distal end of the radius? styloid process
14. which portion of the humerus articulates with the radial head? the capitulum (ka-pit-chew-lum)
15. name the structures located at the proximal end of the humerus head greater tubercle lesser tubercle surgical neck
16. what is the name of the large rounded projection that can be felt on the superior, lateral surface of the shoulder? acromion (a-crow-me-on)
17. which surface of the hand should be in contact with the film for the PA projection? anterior (palmar)
18. where do we position the CR for a PA projection of the hand? the 3rd MCP joint
19. which projection of the hand demonstrates the IP (interphalangeal) joints? PA oblique
20. which surface of the hand is in contact with the film for the lateral projection of the hand? medial
21. when xraying the fingers, what anatomy should be included? the distal portion of the metacarpal and all of the phalange
22. to demonstrate the IP joint spaces, how must the finger be positioned for the PA and lateral projections? parallel to the film
23. which surface of the hand should be in contact with the film for the lateral projection of the fifth digit? medial surface
24. where is the CR for the PA projection of the second digit PIP joint proximal interphalangeal joint
25. where is the CR for the AP projection of the thumb? MCP joint metacarpohalangeal joint
26. what is the position of the thumb on a PA projection of the hand? oblique
27. which projection of the thumb results in a more magnified image because of the increase in OID? PA
28. which positioning strategy places the wrist in closer contact with the IR for the PA projection of the wrist? closing the fingers into a loose fist
29. which surface of the wrist is in contact with the film for the PA projection of the wrist? anterior
30. what is the position of the wrist for the PA oblique projection with lateral rotation? coronal plane of the wrist at a 45 degree angle to the film with anteromedial surface on the film
31. which carpal bones are best demonstrated on the AP oblique projection of the wrist in medial rotation? lunate and pisiform (pissy-form)
32. which special projections can be used to demonstrate the scaphoid (navicular) bone? PA projection- ulnar deviation PA axial- Stetcher method
33. in radiography of the forearm, it is important to do what to the arm? fully extend the arm with the axilla at table level make sure the hand is supinated with the palm up
34. what is the proper position for the AP projection of the forearm? elbow extended, wrist and elbow parallel to the film, and hand supinated
35. what structures must be included in an AP projection of the forearm? radius and ulna wrist joint elbow joint
36. what surface of the forearm is in contact with the film when radiographing the forearm in a lateral position the medial surface
37. describe the position of the forearm when taking a lateral projection of the forearm elbow flexed at 90 degrees, wrist lateral, medial surface of forearm in contact with the film
38. which surface of the elbow is in contact with the film when taking an AP projection of the elbow? posterior
39. what projection may be substituted for a routine AP projection of the elbow joint when the patient is unable to extend the elbow? AP projection of the proximal forearm OR AP projection of the distal humerus OR BOTH IF NECESSARY!!
40. which projection and position of the elbow demonstrates the radial head and capitulum (ka-pit-chew-lum) without superimposition? AP oblique projection with 45 degree lateral rotation
41. what elbow anatomy is best demonstrated on the AP oblique projection in 45 degree medial rotation coronoid process of the ulna and the trochlea (trow-klee-uh)
42. which projection and position demonstrates the coronoid process of the ulna without superimposition? AP oblique projection, 45 degree medial rotation
43. what specific anatomy is demonstrated without superimposition in the AP oblique projection in 45 degree lateral rotation of the elbow radial head and capitulum (ka-pit-chew-lum)
44. what is the proper method to position the humerus for the AP projection? upper limb abducted, elbow extended, humeral epicondyles PARALLEL to the film
45. where is the CR entrance point for the AP projections of the shoulder? 1 inch medial and inferior to the coracoid process
46. which projection of the shoulder demonstrates the greater tubercle of the humerus in profile? AP projection, external rotation
47. what is the relationship of the humeral epicondyles with the film for the AP projection of the shoulder in the external rotation? parallel
48. what anatomy is best demonstrated in the AP projection of the shoulder in the internal rotation lesser tubercle of the humerus in profile
49. what are the proper patient instructions for the AP projection of the shoulder? hold your breath, don't move
50. which projection of the shoulder demonstrates the glenohumeral joint with an open joint space and the glenoid process in profile AP oblique projection, Grashey method
51. where does the CR enter the patient for the AP oblique projection (Grashey method)of the shoulder? perpendicular to a point 2 inches medial and 2 inches inferior to the superolateral border of the shoulder
52. what exams might be used to examine an acute injury to the shoulder? PA oblique projection (scapular Y) transthoracic lateral (lawrence method)
53. what are the proper patient instructions for the transthoracic projection of the shoulder? breath slowly and deeply
54. what is the proper CR angle and direction on the AP axial projection of the clavicle 15-30 degrees cephalic
55. what is the proper CR angle and direction on the PA axial projection of the clavicle? 15-30 degrees caudal
56. which clavicle projections and patient position are more comfortable for the patient with an injury to the clavicle? AP and AP axial projections
57. what is the advantage of imaging the clavicle using PA projections? decreases OID
58. what is the proper patient position for the lateral projection of the scapula in the upright position? anterior oblique body position, with the affected side closer to the film
59. to demonstrate the blade (body) of the scapula, how should the patient's arm be positioned? across the chest
60. what is the required patient position for an AP projection of the AC joints? upright
61. what is the purpose of radiographic examination of the AC joints? to visualize the position of the bones as an indicator of ligament integrity
62. what is required for a radiographic exam of the AC joints? the patient must be in the upright position both sides must be imaged for comparison images must be made with and without weights
63. what term is applied to a common fracture of the 5th metacarpal? boxer's fracture
64. which carpal bone, if fractured, can have serious complications and why the scaphoid, because it lies close to the radial artery, and may sever the artery if the break is sharp, necrosis may occur due to lack of blood supply to the area.
65. where does a "Colles fracture" occur? in the distal radius
66. a fracture of the ulna with dislocation of the radial head is called Monteggia (Mon-tay-gia) fracture
67. which portion of the humerus is most susceptible to fracture? the surgical neck
68. what is the name of the most common type of arthritis? osetoarthritis
69. what term is used to denote inflammation of the bone, especially in the marrow, caused by a pathogenic organism? osteomyelitis
70. when radiographing a long bone, any long bone, what must be included? the joint above, and the joint below