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Geography Topic 4

GCSE - water world

What is the biosphere? The zone where life is found
What is the lithosphere? The uppermost layer of the earth
What is the hydrosphere? All the water that is close or on the surface of the earth
What is the hyrological cycle? The movement of water between the different states; gas, liquid, solid
How does the hydrological cycle work as a system of water stores and transfers? Water stores: lakes, oceans, groundwater, clouds Water transfers: evaporation, evapotranspiration, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, percolation
Where is the Sahel and what is some of its geography? LOCATION: strip of land across subsaharan Africa PHYSICAL: Semi-arid region with less precipitation than evaporation, unpredictable rain HUMAN: farming is difficult, low human development, malnutrition
How might climate change affect the Sahel region? Warmer temperatures -> increased evaporation -> higher water vapour concentrations -> unpredictable but more intense rain -> land is more dry so less infiltration ->less groundwater recharge -> more run off causing floods
What is the difference between physical water scarcity, economic water scarcity and water stress? WATER STRESS: when demand for water exceeds available amount PHYSICAL SCARCITY: when there isn't enough rain to fulfill the demand ECONOMIC SCARCITY: when people can't afford water/access to water
What are some examples of pressures on water availability? - population growth: not enough water for so many people - climate change: areas with little water will have even less - urbanisation: water supply wont fulfill demand with so many people in a city - industrial development: need water for manufacturing
What are some examples of pressures on water quality? Agricultural run-off e.g. fertilisers cause eutrophication, salt run-off from roads, toxic materials from mines pollute water, oil spills, poor sewage systems in developing world
What where the impacts of changing water supplies in the Sahel? 1)there was above-average rain before 1960s 2)populations increased in Sahel 3)new farming techniques were used, with water-dependant cattle that needed space and grass 4)changing water patterns killed cattle, crops & people, & desertification
Give an example of where there are pressures on water quality? The River Danube- 1) a dam collapsed so masses of arsenic and mercury got into Marcal River then into River Danube (killed livestock, crops, wildlife) 2) agricultural run-off from fertilisers 3) sewage from poor sewage systems 4) slurry
How do humans interfere with the water cycle? * overabstraction of groundwater- done when there is population growth, a drought, when an area develops- causes subsidence and is unsustainable ISRAEL * building a reservoir- done to store water for use in a city- causes a loss of land, ruins ecosystems
What is a dam and what are its uses? A large, concrete wall that stops the flow of a river, with a reservoir behind it. It is used to store water for municipal/ industrial/ agricultural use, for water sports, for generating electricity, for irrigation
What is an example of a large scale water project in a developed area? The hoover dam, Las Vegas: Colorado river and Lake Mead
What are the benefits of the hoover dam? ECONOMIC: tourist attraction, creates jobs SOCIAL: people in Nevada and other states can have a good water supply, recreational activities ENVIRONMENTAL: HEP is renewable and sustainable, local farmers get a regular supply of water for irrigation
What are the costs of the hoover dam? ECONOMIC: expensive to build SOCIAL: construction of the dam caused deaths and spread diseases ENVIRONMENTAL: construction of the dam caused pollution, the Colorado river delta ecosystem was destroyed
What is an example of a large scale water project in a developing area? The Three Gorges Dam, China: Yangtze River and Three Gorges reservoir
What are the benefits of the three gorges dam? ECONOMIC:better navigation from dam increases trade, less money to build than rebuilding after flood SOCIAL: better flood control and navigation ENVIRONMENTAL: HEP is renewable and sustainable
What are the costs of the three gorges dam? ECONOMIC: expensive to build, relocatees drained the economy SOCIAL: 1.4 million people had to be moved from their homes ENVIRONMENTAL: construction released greenhouse gases and toxic substances into water
How can appropriate technology affect water resources in the developing world? (Burkina Faso) Hand dug wells use sand and gravel as natural filters so locals can get clean water- easy to build, uses local resources, better health, locals are taught how to build it themselves, not expensive
How can appropriate technology affect water resources in the developing world? (Mali) Rain harvesting in Mali- locals have clean water during dry season, cheap, locals are taught how to build it themselves, uses local resources, improves health
Created by: 11043