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Structure of Matter

QuestionAnswer
What is matter composed of? Invisible and indivisible particles called atoms.
Define atom. Smallest particle of an element having characteristic properties of that element.
What is matter? Anything occupying space and has inertia.
Where is matter found? In nature in impure form, as a mineral of indefinite composition.
What is a molecule? Smallest subdivision of a substance having characteristic properties of that substance.
What determines a molecule's state? Degree of attraction among molecules of a given body.
What are the states of a molecule? Solid, Liquid, Gas
What are the 2 types of substance? Simple and complex
What is a compound? Complex substance formed by chemical union of 2 or more elements in definite proportions.
When was atom model proposed? In 1913 by Niels Bohr.
Define nucleus. Contains most of mass consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons).
Define proton. Elementary positive particle with mass about 1.67 x 10 -24 and diameter about 10 -13 cm
Define neutron. Elementary NEUTRAL particle having same mass as the proton.
What is the shell formula? (2 n- 2)
Define atomic number Number of protons/positive charges/symbol Z
Define atomic mass. Total number of protons and neutrons of an atom/symbol A
Define isotope. Atom having same number of protons, but different neutrons.
Define nuclide. Any particular kind of atom having specific number of protons and neutrons.
How is Periodic Table arranged? From lightest to heaviest, and from lowest atomic number to highest.
Define valence. Determines combining ability of atom by number of electrons in outermost shell.
Ionic Bond When two ATOMS ARE ATTRACTED TO EACH OTHER and form compounds.
How does ionization happen? Through addition or removal of orbital electron.
Name the six methods that produce ionization. Exposure of matter to x-rays/gamma rays, stream of electrons, to light, chemical ionization, spontaneous decay of radionuclides, and thermionic emission
The second is based on __________. The rotation of earth around the sun.
What is the unit of power? Watt
The type of bonding that involves the SHARING OF ELECTRONS is called? Covalent bond
In the Law of Conservation of Energy, energy ____________. cannot be created or destroyed and can be transformed from one form to another.
How many electrons can occupy the Q shell of an atom? 98
How many neutrons are in an isotope of lead that has an atomic number of 82 and a mass number of 210? 128
In an atom, electrical neutrality is achieved by maintaining a balance between what? Electrons and protons
What is the unit of mass? Kilogram (kg)
What is the charge of an electron and its mass? Negative/0.000548
What happens to an atom if it gains or loses an electron? It becomes an ion.
What is the definition of energy? The ability to do work
What is Newton's First Law of Motion? An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an external force.
What is Newton's Second Law of Motion? An object with mass and acceleration is acted on by a force, F=ma
What is Newton's Third Law of Motion? For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
What is the mass per unit volume of a substance called? Density
The ability of a moving body to do work is called? Kinetic energy
A neutral atom that loses an orbital electron will have a ____________. positive charge
Name the eight forms of energy. Chemical, Atomic, Light, Mechanical, Molecular, Electrical, Nuclear, and Thermal
What is the unit for resistance? Ohm
What is the unit of electrical current? Ampere
Where are electrical charges found on a conductor? The external surface
Which of the following moves in a conductor? Negative charges
What is the unit used to measure potential difference? Volt
What particles move to create electrical current? Electrons
What effect does a high temperature have on resistance? Increases
The flow of electrons is known as what? Current
What is the definition of energy? The ability to do work.
What is valence? The number of electrons in the outermost shell.
What are the specs for a copper wire with high electrical resistance. 200 cm, 20 gauge
T/F: Amperage remains constant throughout. True
Objects become electrified because of? Transfer of electrons
Define density. The mass per unit volume of a substance.
Define temperature. A measure of the average energy of motion of the molecules in matter.
Push or pull on an object is called? Force
Define inertia. The tendency of a resting body to remain at rest.
What converts ELECTRICAL energy to MECHANICAL energy? Electric motor
What converts CHEMICAL energy to ELECTRICAL energy? Battery
What converts HEAT energy to MECHANICAL energy? Steam engine
What converts CHEMICAL energy to MECHANICAL energy? Gasoline engine
What is the speed of light? 186,000 miles per second
What are the two types of mechanical energy? Kinetic and Potential energy
How many electrons are in the O shell of an atom? 50
In the Law of Conservation of Energy, energy __________. Cannot be created or destroyed and can be transformed from one form to another.
A neutral atom that loses an orbital electron will have a _____. Positive charge
Define temperature. A measure of the average energy of motion
Push or pull on an object is called? Force
Define specific gravity. The ratio of density of any material to the density of watr
Created by: rad1958tech