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MC Pharm 2 exam 1

MC Fabick

nucleoTIDES viral DNA building blocks
nucleoSIDES split off of the TIDES & at a sugar
what antiviral drug can be given during pregnancy? Zidovudine (Retrovir, AZT)
Which class of antivirals are the most potent? Protease Inhibitors
Which antiviral is always given with another antiviral? NNRTI's
A pregnancy category X drug ribavirin (Virazole)
What does a pegylated formulation do? extends the length of the action
which interferon works with Hep A? interferon alfa-2a (Roferon-A)
which interferon works with Hep C? interferon alfa-2b (Intron-A)
Which type of vaccines need boosters? Toxoids
What immunization drug can be given to a immunocompromised patient? immune globulin preperations (passive)
Amphotericin B should be held for what BUN & Creatinine? BUN greater than 40 Creatinine greater than 3
What precautions must be taken on administering Amphotericin B? wear double gloves & infuse over 4-6 hrs. Its a suspension so shake every 30 mins
What drug increases blood sugar in diabetics? fluconazol (Diflucan)
In what time frame should chloroquine (Aralen) reduce fever related to malaria? 48 hrs. or less
What is the significance of G6PD deficiency? bone marrow depression & anemia. Can impair metabolism of RBC
G6PD is tested in what drug? chloroquine (Aralen)- for antimalaria
Which medications is known for its metallic taste? metronidazole (Flagyl)
What drug is contraindicated in the 1st trimester? metronidazole (Flagyl)
Culture identifies organism or pathogen
Sensitivity identifies drug sensitivity
Empiric Therapy is what? treatment with a drug broad spectrum & most likely to affect the probable causative organism until actual organism is known
When do you get a peak level? 30-60 mins after administering drug
When do you get a trough level? 30 mins before the next dose
What are the S&S of psedomembranous colitis? abd cramping, severe watery bloody diarrhea, fever, thirst, weight loss, weakness
What is a superinfection? too many normal host flora are killed by the antibiotic allowing the pathogenic organisms to multiply and take advantage of the immune system...s/e= Diarrhea, mouth sores, vaginal discharge, dysuria
What are the S&S of superinfection? diarrhea, sores in the mouth, bladder pain, vaginal discharge, painful urination
1st thing to do during a anaphylaxis reaction? stop the drug & never take it again
Treatments for anaphylaxsis include antihistamine, vasopressor, bronchodilator, epinephrine
What ways can help replace bowel flora & help prevent pseudomembranous colitis? take probiotic supplements or cultured dairy products that contain lactobacillus that is live
Which penicillin contains sodium? penicillin G (Wycillin, Biciliin) careful in pts. with heart disease or edema
Which generations of cephalosporins can enter the CSF & are beta lactamase resistant? 3rd & 4th generation
Which classification decreases PT levels therefore increasing bleeding tendencies? cephalosporins
What is antabuse? prevents recovering alcoholics from drinking. they get really sick & can die if they drink alcohol.
What is disulfiram? Antabuse reaction
Which drug is pregnancy catagory D? tetracycline
Which drugs are contraindicated under age of 8? tetracycline & ethambutol (Myambutol)
Which drug becomes toxic if outdated? tetracycline
Which drug if taken with calcium, milk or iron leads to a 50% decrease in absorption? tetracycline
What drug has the side effect of diabetes insipidous? doxycycline (Vibramycin) & demeclocycline (Declomycin)
What drug should you not crush? macrolides (erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, dirithromycin)
Which drug can decrease ammonia levels? aminoglycosides (neomycin sulfate & kanamycin)
With what drug can you develop arthropathies or joint diseases? fluoroquindones, (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, levofloxacin)
Which drug do you not take with multivitamins, calcium, magnesium, iron, or zinc because it decreases absorption to 90%? fluoroquinolones
Which drug causes hepatic necrosis? sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, sulfasalazine (sulfonamides)
Which drug can cause CNS toxicity? metronidazole (Flagyl)
Which drug can cause optic neuritis? Chloramphenicol (Chlorofair) & ethambutol (Myambutol)
Which drug is used for Chronic UTI's? methenamine (Mandelamin, Hiprex, Urex)
What class & drug was developed to treat VRE? streptogramins: quinupristin/dalfopristin (Synercid)
Which drug was developed for MRSA other than vancomycin? oxazolidinones: linezolid (Zyvox)
Which drug can cause Red Man syndrome? Vancomycin (Vancocin)
Which drug should you avoid foods with tyramine & aluminum antacids? isoniazid (INH)
Which drug causes reddish brown secretions? rifampin (Rifadin)
Zidovudine (Retrovir, AZT) NRTI, take on empty stomach, avoid IM, prophylaxis HIV and positive mom at 14 wks and baby 6 wks
didanosine (ddI, Videx) NRTI, BID, pancreatitis, periph. nerupathy
stavudine (d4T, Zerit) NRTI, slows HIV progression, peripheral neuropathy
Nevirapine (Viramune) NNRTI, rash, fever N/V/D, never given alone, monitor renal and liver
saquinavir Protease Inhibitors or PI
Acyxlovir (Zovirax) antiretroviral for herpesvirus, prototype, oral 7-10 days, topical finger cot, Q3x6 x7 days, w/food, stay hydrated, nephrotoxic (IV), admin specifics
cidofovir (Vistide) antiretroviral for herpesvirus, IV for CMV retinitis in AIDS patients, toxic
famciclovir (Famvir) antiretroviral for herpesvirus, 3x/day
vlacyclovir (Vlatrex) antiretroviral for herpesvirus, DOC genital herpes
ribavirin (Virazole) antiretroviral for herpesvirus, for RSV, inhaled, CI preg ladies to be around
docosanol (Abreva) antiretroviral for herpesvirus, prevents viral entry/ replication
amantadine (Symmetrel) drugs for influenza,xerestomia, antiviral/antiparkinson, neuro S/E
rimantadine (Flumadine) drugs for influenza, prevent/tx influenza A
oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu) drugs for influenza, tx influenza A and B
Zanamivir (Relenza) drugs for influenza, like Tamiflu, shortens sx of illness
interferon alfa-2a (Roferon-A) interferons
interferon alfa-2b (Intron-A) interferons
peginterferon alfa-2a (Pegasys) pegylated formulation
peginterferon alfa-2b (PEG-Intron) pegylated formulation
Ecchinacea antimicrobial & antiviral, increases phagycytosis, antiviral, for cold and flu
Tea Tree Oil Antifungal, antifungal, used topically (diluted)
Peniccillin Bacterialcidal, disrupt cell wall synthesis, -cidal
Cephalosporins Bacterialcidal, gram neg infections, cheaper than penicillin,-cidal, generational
Aminoglycosides Bacterialcidal, IV/60MIN, -cidal, prevents protein synthesis, "big bad boy", combo for serious infections
Fluoroquinolones Bacterialcidal, -cidal, alters DNA, photophobia, joint probs
Vancomycin Bacterialcidal, red man syndrome, "big bad guy", monitor peak and trough, IV/6OMIN/SLOW, -cidal
Rifampin (Rifadin) Bacterialcidal,
Macrolides Bacterialcidal & Bacteriostatic
Bactrim/Septra/SMZ-TMP Bacterialcidal & Bacteriostatic
Lincomycins/Lincosides Bacterialcidal & Bacteriostatic, IV/slow/60 min, avoid extravasations, static/cidal, Psuedomembranous colitis
Chlorofair Bacterialcidal & Bacteriostatic, can lead to blindness, static/cidal
INH Bacterialcidal & Bacteriostatic
Tetracylcline Bacteriostatic, inhibit protein synthesis, static, broad
Sulfonamides Bacteriostatic, static, folic acid blockers
What 2 classes need a peak & trough drawn? Aminoglycosides & Vancomycin
What 2 drugs have antabuse reaction? Flagyl & Cephalosporins
DOC for herpes valacyclovir (Valtrex)
RSV drug ribavirin (Virazole)
Grapefruit juice increase this drug Cyclosporine (Sandimmune)
Contraindicated for yeast allergy Hepatitis B Vaccine
What drug do you need to premedicate? Amphotericin B
What drug class can penetrate CNS & bone? azole antifungal
Drug given with food or antacids? INH
Drug given with milk or food? urinary tract antiseptics & nitrofurantoin (Furadantin, Macrodantin)
Drug given with food? NNRTI Nevirapin (Viramine) & efavirenz (Sustiva) & Acyclovir (Zovirax) & Lincosamdies/mycins
Drug given within 2 hrs of a high calorie/fat meal PI saquinavir
Drug given with high fat meal antihelminthic.. mebendazole (Vermox)
Drug given within 1 hr before or after meals? Penicillin
oprelvekin (Neumega) interleukin..platelet inhancer
What drug decreases urine output by 75%? cyclosporine (Sandimmune, Neoral)
fluconazol (Diflucan) azole antifungals, DOC mouth and throat yeast infection, avoid alcohol/tylenol, increases blood sugar, monitor renal and hepatic, CNS and bone tx
ketoconazole (Nizoral) azole antifungals for athlete's foot
itraconazole (Sporanox) azole antifungals for athlete's foot
miconazole (Monistat IV, Micatin topical) azole atnifungal for tinea infections
clotrimazole (Mycelex, Lotrimin, Gyne-lotrimin) azole atnifungal for tinea infections
nystatin (Mycostatin, Nilstat) antifungal for superficials swoosh and spit, give immediately, shake, no water taken with it,
terbinafine (Lamisil) antifungal for nail fungus
tolnaftate (Tinactin, Aftate) antifungal for tineas
terbinafine (Lamisil & itraconazole (Sporanox) accumulate in nail beds
chloroquine (Aralen) Protozoal drug for malaria, prophylaxis, reduces fever in <48 hrs, test for G6PD deficiency
hydroxychloroquine sulfate (Plaquenil) Protozoal drug for malaria, psoriasis and RA
metronidazole (Flagyl) Protozoal drug for non malaria, amebiasis and anaerobic infections, discolored urine, metallic taste, avoid alcohol, CI first trimester
tinidazole (Tindamax) Protozoal drug for non malaria, similar to metronidazole
pentamidine (Pentam 300 & Nebupent) Protozoal drug for non malaria, tx pneumonia and HIV patients
mebendazole (Vermox) anti helminthic drugs (for roundworm), tape tested, chew food well and eat fats, s/e- diarrhea
DOC for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Tetracycline
Treats PCP sulfonamides & pentamidine (Pentam 300 & Nebupent)
Which penicillin combination is often used in kids Augmentin
erythromycin macrolides, static/ cidal, hearing probs, don't crush, inhibits protein synthesis, PC, superinfection
azithromycin (Zithromax) macrolides, (ZPACK), 1 time daily for 3 days, semisynthetic, cause GI probe
clarithromycin (Biaxin) macrolides,
dirithromycin (Dynabac) macrolides
Z Pack azithromycin (Zithromax)
gentamicin sulfate (Garamycin) aminoglycosides, for bowel surgeries
neomycin sulfate (Neo-IM, Mycifradin) aminoglycosides, decreases amino levels in liver failure
kanamycin (Kantrex) aminoglycosides
streptomycin sulfate tobramycin sulfate (Nebcin) aminoglycosides
floxacin drugs Fluoroquinolones or quinolones
nalidixic acid (NegGram) Fluoroquinolones or quinolones, bacterial resistance
clindamycin (Cleocin) Lincosamides/Lincomycins
lincomycin (Lincocin) Lincosamides/LincomycinsLincosamides/Lincomycins, avoid extravasations
isoniazid (INH) Antitubercular drugs
paraminosalicylic acid (PAS) Antitubercular drugs substitute for ethambutol for kids under 7
Created by: midnight1854



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