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Ch 1-3

1 Ethics (prescriptive rules for action)
1 Metaethics (study of the nature and concepts of ethics)
1 Red Herring irrelevant point that serves as a distraction
1 Ad Hominem attacking the person/source of the argument
1 Straw man Fallacy attacking a misrepresented/distorted version of an (opposing view (contrast to Principle of Charity)
1 Principle of Charity be generous in interpreting the views (i.e., make them as strong as possible) of others
1 Consistency are ethical beliefs consistent with other ethical and non-ethical views?
1 studying metaethics vs. moral self-help is more learning about natural ethics while moral self help is like teaching you how to improve your ethics.
1 Natural Morality Ethical truths and principles that are part of nature, conditional rules with exceptions. coming from a natural process.
1 Trancendent Morality ethical truths/ Principles are outside of natural world, unconditional rules without exceptions Ex... the 10 Comandments
1 Theological Voluntarism/ Divine Command Theory Whatever God commands and only what God commands is right and or good. (this a popular version of transcendent morality)
1 Theological Voluntarism Cons.. -in principle, any action even unprovoked murder could be right if god deems it so. -Leaves little room for critecal reflection reguarding metaethics -fear of punishment not sufficient motive for truly ethical action.
2 Psychological Egoism it is a fact of human psychology that we always act in a self-interested manner, even when the action is apparently other-directed (e.g., giving to charity)
2 Ethical Egoism Although we may act unselfishly, we ought to always act in a self-interested manner
2 Psychological Egoism Pros... 1. accords with the observed prevelance of selfish behavior
2 Psychological Egoism Cons... 1. Non-falsifiable 2. Stretches the meaning of "selfishness" beyond common usage
2 Individual Ethical Egoism Everyone ought to act exclusively for my benefit and my benefit alone
2 Universal Ethical Egoism Everyone ought to act exclusively for thier own benefit.
2 Individual Egoism Pros... 1. internally consistent position
2 Individual Egoism Cons... 1. undesirable social consequences ex social ostracism 2.characteristic of psycopathology
2 Universal Egoism Pros... 1. Social Darwinism (survival of the fitest) 2. Supposed benefits of laissez-faire (unregulated) capitalism
2 Universal Egoism Cons... 1. Distorts Darwinian Evolution 2. Lack of empirical support for supposed benefits of unregulated capitalism
2 Social Relativism Empirical, scientific claim that the moral claim that moral codes vary from culture to culture
2 Cultural Relativism Normative ethical position stipulating that there is no objective moral truth or standard of justificatin ; rather, moral rightness or wrongness is determined by local culture.
2 Cultural Relativism Pros... 1. Promotes multicultural tolerance and sensitivity and prevents imperialism 2. Explains rampant ethical disagreement
2 Cultural Relativism Cons... 1. Underestimates fluidity of cultural identities 2. eliminates any justification for ethical reform 3. trivializes ethical concerns
3 Sentimentalism the view that emotions/feelings play a vital and necessary role in human morality
3 Kant (“cold” duty)
3 Hume (“hot” sympathies)
3 non-instrumental vs. instrumental reasoning vs. instrumental reasoning (Hume: “Reason is and ought only to be the slave of the passions)
Created by: Luxislis
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