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ccctc test 3 def.

defenitions for test 3

QuestionAnswer
process where a drug is taken up from the site of administration and is transported to the blood stream absorption
absorption occurs 5 ways: orally, topically, rectally, by inhalation, parenteral
taken into the body in a manner other than gastrointestinal tract parenteral
ways to absorb medication orally tablet, capsule, liquid, syrup
ways to absorb medication topically cream, lotion, ointment, gel
ways to absorb medication rectally suppository, ointment
ways to absorb medication by inhalation inhaler, nebulizer, vaporizer, mask
process where the drug, once in the bloodstream, is delivered to specific organs and tissues in the body to exert its pharmacological effects distribution
process by which the body breaks down and converts medication into an active chemical substances metabolism
process by which the drug is eliminated from the body- primarily by the kidney excretion
% or fraction of the administered dose of a drug that actually reaches systemic circulation. Factors affecting oral route of administration include, age, body weight and time of administration. bio availability
when the effectiveness of two drugs is decreased when given together. therapeutic incompatibility
when two drugs from the same class are given together therapeutic duplication
effects other than the desired ones adverse effects
a severe adverse reaction to the administration of a drug anaphylactic reaction
problem that occurs when treatment goes beyond desired effect or problems that occur in addition to the desired effect side effects
effects that are harmful and destructive to the body toxicities
example of toxicities chemotherapy kills good cells
cross sensitivity allergy to drugs that are chemically similar
a change in the magnitude or duration of the pharmacological response of one drug because of the presence of another drug drug interactions
occurs when two or more drugs combined together yield a response when the drugs by themselves are not enough (1+1=2) additive response
occurs when the effect of two or more drugs is greater than the sum of the drugs (1+1=5) synergistic response
a theoretical ratio that weighs the benefits over the risks and must be done by a case-by-case basis only risk-to-benefit ratio
when a drug used for one indication causes an increase in severity of another indication contraindication
the results outweigh the risks when the drug used can cause an increase in side effects or risks relative contraindication
this indication should never be done and could result in life threatening circumstances absolute contraindication
the study of drugs and their interactions with the human body to produce therapeutic effects pharmacology
a substance intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation (decrease in severity), treatment, or prevention of disease in human beings or animals drug
a drug that requires a prescription legend drug
also refered to as over the counter drugs. these are medications that the FDA has determined to be safe and effective for consumers to self-medicate when used as directed by the product labeling. Does not require a prescription non-prescription drugs
examples of legend drugs that also are available over the county antivert and prilosec
these products are not regulated by the FDA because the suppliers do not make therapeutic claims. these products are not reviewed for content and have not been proven effective. dietary supplements
the most common solid dosage form available. they vary in shape, size, weight, color, dissolution properties, and method of delivery: tablets
designed to dissolve slowly when placed between the cheek and gums. bypasses the digestive tract. gives prolonged release of medication. buccal tablets
designed to dissolve immediately and produce a rapid drug response when placed under the tongue, not swallowed sublingual tablets
designed to be easily chewed and then swallowed chewable tablets
examples of sublingual tablets nitro tablets and B12 tablets
example of chewable tablets flinstone vitamins
example of effervescent tablets alka-seltzer
coated to delay the release of medication until the tablet has reached the intestinal tract enteric-coated tablets
used to mask taste film-coated tablets
solid dosage forms in which forms in which the medication is enclosed in a shell of either hard or soft gelatin. patients typically find these easier to swallow than tablets capsules
made from powdered natural materials such as plants and animal organs. powder was combined with sticky material so that it could be rolled into a round mass. out-dated dosage form. pills
formulated to produce a constant release of medication over an extended period of time. allows for consistent blood level for a longer duration. reduces the number of doses that must be taken controlled release
ways to designate controlled release for a drug: LA (long acting) SA (sustained action) SR (sustained release) CR (controlled release) TR (timed release)
dissolve in the mouth. provide medication to the oral cavity. look similar to hard candy pastilles, lozenges
can be hard or have a gummy consistency, provide medication to the oral cavity troches
give an example of lozenges cough drops
give an example of enteric-coated tablets enteric-coated aspirin
solid dosage forms which have been crushed to make a fine powder powders
designed to be inserted into a body cavity suppositories
inserted into the vagina where they dissolve to provide topical and systemic effects vaginal tablets
provide a route for medication to those patients who cannot swallow solid dosage forms liquid dosage forms
prepared to be the complete dissolution of medication(s) in a suitable liquid solutions
solutions that contain sugar syrups
solutions that contain alcohol tinctures
liquids in which the medication does not completely dissolve but rather is suspended in a liquid formation suspensions
what auxiliary label should be placed on a suspension shake well
require the addition of distilled water within the pharmacy. stored as powder to prevent deterioration of medicine reconstituted liquid
preparations containing oil and water. in time the oil and water separate to form two clearly visible layers emulsions
what auxillary label should be placed on the patient's prescription bottle shake well
clear sweet combinations of water and alcohol intended for oral use elixers
contains plant extracts as the active ingredient in water and/or alcohol fluid extracts and tinctures
contain substances that evaporate quickly in ambient conditions. keeping in airtight containers can prevent losses due to evaporation spirits and elixers
systems in which gas have been incorporated into a liquid and when released the entrapped gas gives the product a very light consistancy foams
and easy method to apply medication to the scalp. due to large amounts of hair, other topical preparations are difficult to use in the area. shampoo
liquid preparations which dry to form a flexible film that can be removed from the skin colloids
provide medication to the oral cavity. patients are usually directed to swish and swallow or swish and spit mouthwash/rinse
Created by: kfpolchies