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Rad Positioning Ch17

Digestive System -- UGI

Which body habitus will have the stomach in a mostly horizontal position (will also sit high)? Hypersthenic
What body habitus will demonstrate the stomach in an almost vertical position (usually also sits very low)? Asthenic
The body habitus for 50% of the population is ___________ and the body habitus for 35% of the population is __________. 50%=Sthenic; 35%=Hyposthenic (Total 85%)
What is the length of the alimentary canal? 29-30 Feet
What is the typical length of the esophagus? 10 inches
The small intestine is approximately how long? 22 feet
What is the shortest and widest part of the small intestine? Duodenum
Approximately how long is the Duodenum of the small intestine? 8 to 10 inches
The duodenum is divided into _____ portions. 4
The 1st region of the duodenum is _________; the 2nd is ___________; 3rd is ____________; and 4th is _____________. Superior; Descending, Horizontal; Ascending
The 1st portion of the duodenum is called the __________ bulb because of its appearance when filled with contrast. Duodenal Bulb
The 2nd part of the duodenum (descending)is about ____ to _____ inches long. 3 to 4 inches
The 3rd part of the duodenum about _____ inches long. 2 1/2 inches
The 4th part of the duodenum is on the left side of the vertebra and joins the jejunum at a sharp curve called the ______________ ___________ and is supported by the ___________ muscle of the duodenum. Duodenojejunal Flexure; Suspensory
The Jejunum and Ileum of the small intestine are gathered into freely movable loops (gyri) and are attached to the posterior wall of the abdomen by the ____________. Mesentery
The large intestine is approximately _________ long. The cecum (pouch-like portion below the ileum and colon) is approximately ____ inches long and _____ inches wide with the trailing vermiform appendix ______ inches long. 5 feet; 2.5 inches x 3 inches wide; 3 inches long
The rectum is approximately ______ inches long with the most distal portion ______ inch long and constricted to form the anal canal. 6 inches; 1 inche
The digestive system consists of 2 parts: the ____________ glands and the _____________ _________. Accessory glands; Alimentary canal
List the Accessory organs: (SLGP: Silly Little Guinea Pig) Salivary Glands, Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas)
List the organs of the Alimentary Canal: (MPE SSLA: Many People Eat So Should Little Animals) Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine, Anus)
The entire Alimentary Canal has 4 layers. List them from the OUTSIDE to INSIDE. Fibrous, Muscular, Sub-Mucosal, Mucosal
The expanded portion of the terminal Esophagus is called the ___________ __________. Cardiac Antrum
The Muscle controlling the opening to the stomach is the __________ ____________. The muscle controlling the opening to the Duodenum of the small intestine is the __________ __________. Cardiac Sphincter; Pyloric Sphincter
The inferior position of the esophagus curves sharply left, increases in diameter and joins the stomach at the _____________ ___________ at the level of T-____ (Xiphoid Tip) Esophagogastric Junction; T-11 (Xiphoid Tip)
How long does it take for Barium to pass through the Alimentary Canal? 24 hours
What are the 2 main functions of the stomach? Store and Break down food
The Contraction Wave the digestive system that propels food along the alimentary canal is called ___________. Peristalsis
What is the patient prep instructions for a stomach exam in the early morning? NPO after midnight (NPO= "Nil Per Os": Nothing by mouth)
What is the Patient prep instructions for a stomach exam for any other time than early morning? NPO 8 hours prior
What are the routinely used methods (contrast) for stomach exams? Single & Double Contrast
What position for an x-ray of the abdomen would require the use of a positioning sponge? AP Oblique (sponge under the elevated side to hold them up)
What is the largest gland in the body? Liver
What 2 regions of the abdomen is the liver located in? Right Hypochondrium and Epigastric region
What quadrant is the Spleen located in? Left Upper Quadrant
What are the 2 vessels that supply blood to the liver? Portal Vein and Hepatic Artery
What are the 2 functions of the Gallbladder? Store and Concentrate Bile
The function of the exocrine cells of the pancreas is what? Produce and secrete digestive juices
Name 4 ways to record fluorographic studies: Video Recorders, Cine Film Recorders, Digital Image Camera, & Spot Film Camera
What are the 3 types of contrast mediums used for examinations of the gastrointestinal tract? Air (Sodium Bicarbonate--Fizzies), Barium Sulfate Water-Soluble iodinated solutions
Which type of contrast is negative? Air (Sodium Bicarbonate) Shows up dark
What is the most commonly used contrast? Barium Sulfate
Which contrast should be used if there is any chance that it could escape into the peritoneal cavity? Water-Soluble Iodinated Contrast (Gastrografin Or Gastroview)
What is a hazard associated with water-soluble iodinated contrast media especially with geriatric patients? Dehydration
What is the respiration phase for almost all UGI projections? Suspended Expiration
What is the primary advantage of using Double contrast for the gastrointestinal tract? Better visualization of small lesions and the mucosal lining of the stomach
What drug is commonly given to patients before a Double-Contrast exam to relax the gastrointestinal tract? Glucagon or other anticholinergic medications
The Common bile duct and the Pancreatic duct unite to form the ____________ ____________. Hepatopancreatic Ampulla
The opening inside the Duodenum where the pancreatic enzymes and bile enter through the hepatopancreatic ampulla is known as: Major (or greater) Duodenal Papilla
What is the function of the spleen? Production of lymphocytes and stores and removes dead or dying Red Blood Cells
Specific radiographic examination of the biliary ducts termed _____________. Cholangiography
When food enters the stomach and combines with gastric secretions, it's passed to the small intestines as _________. Chyme
The 2 organs responsible for digestion: Stomach and Small Intestines
Term for the act of swallowing: Deglutition
What is the common passageway for both food and air? Pharynx
What is the cartilage that prevents food from entering the larynx? Epiglottis
What is the recommended oblique radiographic view of the esophagus? PA Oblique / RAO
What is the degree of body rotation for the recommended oblique radiographic view of the esophagus? 35-40 degrees
What is the preferred patient position for demonstration of the esophagus where the varices are better filled and more complete filling of the esophagus? Recumbent
What are the essential projections of the esophagus? AP/PA; AP Oblique/PA Oblique (RAO or LPO); Lateral
On the lateral projection of the esophagus, what plane is centered to the IR? Mid-Coronal Plane
What are the patient instructions for an esophagram of the esophagus to show the esophageal varices? Full Expiration, Swallow the Barium Bolus and avoid inspiration until the exposure is made.
For all projections of the esophagus, where is the top of IR positioned? Level of the mouth
The esophagus is POSTERIOR to the ____________ and ______________. Heart and Trachea
For (10x12 or 14x17 cassette) PA projections of the stomach and duodenum what plane is centered to the IR? Sagittal plane midway between the vertebral column and the left lateral border of the abdomen.
For the PA Projection of the stomach and duodenum center the CR midway between the vertebral column and lateral border at what level for a prone patient? What level for an upright patient? Prone patient at level of L1-2 (1-2 inches above lower rib margin); 3 to 6 inches lower than L1-2 for upright patient
What are the essential projections for the stomach and duodenum? AP or PA / PA Oblique (RAO) / AP Oblique (LPO) / Right Lateral
For a PA Oblique projection of the stomach and duodenum how much should the patient be rotated? 40-70 degrees
For an AP Oblique projection of the stomach and duodenum how much should the patient be rotated? 30-60 degrees
For Oblique projections of the stomach and duodenum which body habitus would require the greatest degree of rotation? Hypersthenic
For a PA Oblique projection of the stomach and duodenum what plane is centered to the grid? Sagittal plane midway between the vertebral column and the elevated side (left side since a PA Oblique is an RAO)
For an AP or PA oblique projection of the stomach and duodenum the IR and CR is centered to what level of the body? L1-2 / midway between the xiphoid process and the lower margin of the ribs
For an AP Oblique projection of the stomach and duodenum the rotation for an average body is? 45 degrees
What plane is centered to the grid for a lateral projection of the stomach and duodenum? The coronal plane midway between the mid-coronal plane and the anterior surface of the abdomen
What projection will best demonstrate the duodenal bulb and loop in profile? PA Oblique RAO
What projection will best demonstrate the Fundus portion of the stomach? AP Oblique LPO
What projection of the stomach will demonstrate the anterior and posterior surfaces of the stomach? Lateral Projection
What projection will best demonstrate a diaphragmatic herniation? AP in Full or Partial Trendelenburg
For an AP projection, which position(s) will demonstrate retrogastric portion of the duodenum and jujenum? Supine and Trendelenburg
The folds of the stomach are called ______. Rugae
The stomach joins the esophagus at an OPENING called the ___________ _________. Cardiac Orifice
The stomach joins the small intestine at an OPENING called the ___________ __________. Pyloric Orifice
A PA projection of the stomach will best demonstrate what? The contour of the stomach and duodenal bulb
Where does the stomach join the esophagus? Esophagogastric Junction
What are the 4 main subdivisions of the stomach? 1)Cardia 2)Fundus 3)Body 4)Pyloric Portion
The lateral border of the stomach is called the __________ _______________. The medial border of the stomach is called the ____________ _____________. Greater Curvature (lateral); Lesser Curvature (medial)
In the prone position, what part of the stomach will barium gravitate? Body and pyloris
Created by: foster1317