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Adolescent Psych 2

Chapter 2

Hormones powerful chemical substances secreted by the endocrine glands & carried throughout the body by the bloodstream
Androgens the main class of male sex hormones
Estrogens the main class of female hormones
Testosterone androgen that plays an important role in male pubertal development; rising levels are associated w/ physical changes in boys including the development of external genitals, increased height, and voice changes; also linked to sexual desire & activity
Estradiol estrogen that plays important role in female pubertal development; as levels rise, breast development, uterine development, and skeletal changes occur
Hypothalamus structure in the brain that interacts with the pituitary gland to monitor the bodily regulation of hormones; monitors eating, drinking, and sex
Pituitary Gland Master gland; produces hormones that stimulate other glands; influences growth by producing growth hormones; sends gonadotropins to the testes and ovaries and a thyroid-stimulating hormone to the thyroid gland; also sends hormone to the adrenal gland
Thyroid Gland Interacts with the pituitary gland to influence growth
Adrenal Gland interacts w/ pituitary gland & likely plays role in pubertal development; research suggest it may be involved in adolescent behavior, particularly for boys
Gonads/Sex Glands consist of the testes and ovaries; involved in the appearance of secondary sex characteristics (facial hair/breast devel.)
pituitary gland sends signal via gonadotropins to the testes/ovaries to manufacture the hormone, through interaction w/ hypothalamus, pit. gland detects when optimal level of hormones has been reached & maintains it w/ additional gonadotropin secretions How does the endocrine system work?
FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (Luteinizing hormone) Levels of sex hormones are regulated by 2 hormones secreted by the pituitary gland:
FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) Hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates follicle development in females and sperm production in males
LH (Luteinizing hormone) hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that regulates estrogen secretion and ovum development in females and testosterone production in males
GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) Hormone from the hypothalamus that is linked to pubertal timing
negative feedback system if the level of sex hormones rises too high, the hypothalamus and pituitary gland reduce their stimulation of the gonads, decreasing the production of sex hormones and vice versa.
cortisol hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that influences growth
Adrenarche involves hormonal changes in the adrenal glands; changes occur from about 6-9y in girls and about a year later in boys, before what is normally considered puberty; adrenal glands secrete adrenal androgens
Gonadarche follows adrenarche by about 2 years; period known as puberty; involves maturation of primary sexual characteristics (ovaries/testes); & secondary sexual characteristics (pubis hard, breasts, genitals); reactivation o/t hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis
Menarche the first menstrual period; occurs in mid- to late gonadarche in girls
Spermarche a boy's first ejaculation of semen, occurs in early to mid gonadarche
High (high or low?) ____ weight is linked to earlier pubertal development
fat, weight Scientists hypothesized that the onset of menarche is influenced by the percentage of body _____ in relation to total body ______
Leptin related to the amounts of fat in girls and androgen in boys; may signal beginning and progression of puberty; concentrations high in girls than in boys
Leptin hormone that may indicate adequate fat stores for reproduction and the maintenance of pregnancy
Low, normal, low _____ birth weight girls experience menarche approximately 5-10 months earlier than _____ birth weight girls; ______ birth weight boys are at risk for small testicular volume during adolescence
earlier Adolescents in developed countries and large urban areas reach puberty ______ than their counterparts in less developed countries and rural areas
adoption, father absence, low SES, family conflict, maternal harshness, child maltreatment, and early substance use Early experiences that are linked to earlier pubertal onset (early pubertal onset probably due to high rates of conflict and stress in social contexts):
Girls, Boys, 9, 11, 11.5, 13.5, 3.5, 4 growth spurt assoc. w/ puberty occurs approx. 2 years earlier for ___ than for __; mean age for growth spurt in girls: ____; for boys: ___; Peak of pubertal change: ____ for girls; ___ for guys; Height increase per year: ___in. for girls, ___ in. for boys
Menarche Growth spurt typically ends around ______ for girls, later for boys
increased penis/testicle size; appearance of straight pubic hair;minor voice change; first ejaculation; appearance of kinky pubic hair; onset of max. growth; growth of armpit hair; more detectable voice changes; & growth of facial hair Male pubertal characteristics develop in this order:
penis elongation, testes development, & growth of facial hair 3 of the most noticeable signs of sexual maturation in boys:
breast development; pubic hair; hair in armpits; height and wider hips; menarche; rounded breasts; Order of appearance of physical changes in females:
pubic hair, breast development Two of the most noticeable aspects of female pubertal change:
Precocious Puberty term used to describe the very early onset and rapid progression of puberty; usually diagnosed in girls when pubertal onset occurs before 8y & 9y in boys; more often in girls;
By medically suppressing gonadotropic secretions, which temporarily stop pubertal change How is precocious puberty usually treated?
have short stature, early sexual capability, and the potential for engaging in agi-inappropriate behavior Children who experience precocious puberty are ultimately likely to:
smoke, drink, be depressed, have an ED, engage in delinquency; struggle for earlier independence, have older friends; & bodies likely to elicit responses from males that lead to earlier dating and earlier sexual experiences Early maturing girls are more likely to:
early-maturing girls being more easily lured into problem behaviors, not recognizing the possible long-term effects of these on their development The combination of their social and cognitive immaturity and early physical development result in
Created by: mobrien606