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Resp 8 I

Oxygen Theory

Aerobic metabolism sustain life, metabolism that occurs in the presence of oxygen, can produce a lot of energy (ATP)
Anaerobic able to grow and function without air or oxygen - in the cytoplasm
oxygen colorless, tastleless, transparent gas
What does oxygen exist in atmosphere 21%
Four classifications of Tissue Hypoxia 1. Hypoxemia (hypoxic hypoxia) 2. Hemoglobin defiency (anemic hypoxia) 3. low blood flow (circulatory hypoxia) 4. dysoxia (histotoxic hypoxia)
Hypoxemia (Hypoxic hypoxia) inadequate delivery of oxygen to the lun or from the lung to the blood RESPONDS TO O2
Causes of hypoxemia hypoventilation, breathing at high altitude, shunt (atelectasis), V/Q mismatch, diffusion defects
Hemoglobin Defiency (anemic hypoxia) anemia refers to low amounts of hemoglobin (Hb) in the blood. RESPONDS TO O2
causes of hemoglobin defiency (anemic hypoxia) loss of Hb, decreased Hb production, abnormal Hb, or an impaired chemical combination of Hb (carbon monoxide poisoning)
Low blood flow (circulatory hypoxia) sufficient blood flow is not reaching the tissue and therefore oxygen is not being delivered. O2 THERAPY LIMITED
causes of low blood flow (circulatory hypoxia) cardiac pump failure, CHF, shock, ischemia
Dysoxia (histotoxic hypoxia) poisoning of the cellular oxygen utilization mechanism has occured (the cell is not able to accept oxygen from the blood to utilize it. DOES NOT RESPOND TO O2
Causes of dysoxia (histotoxic hypoxia) cyanide poisoning
Acute hypoxia sign/symptoms tachypnea, increase RR, tachycardia, hypertension, increase CO, Arrythymia, restlessness, liver and kidney damage
Chronic Hypoxia signs/symptoms persistent mental and physical fatigue, secondary polycythemia, restlessness, clubbing, increase size of heart (right side failure) (cor pulmonale)
Indication for O2 use Documented hypoxemia PaO2 thes than 60 mmHg or SaO2 less than 90%
Oxygen toxicity result of increased FiO2 2 factors: effective dose and duration
Signs/symptoms of oxygen toxicity tachypnea, fatigue, anxiety, irritation of trachea, mild cough, pain in inspiration, N/V, decreased vital capacity
Hypoventilation increased PaO2
Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) increased PaO2, irreversible damage to the retina of an infant due to exposure to high levels in the arterial blood. Greater than 80 mmHg.
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BDP) fibrotic tissue damage caused by the exposure of high levels of inhaled oxygen (FiO2)to the immature lung tissue in a premature baby for a long period of time FiO2 is greater than 40% for more than 24-72 hours
absorption atelectasis collapse of alveoli as the result of high levels (FiO2) in the inhaled air causing elimination of N2 from the lung.
Shift to RIGHT on curve Decrease affinity Decrease pH Increase in Temp increase 2,3,DPG increase in PCO2
Shift to LEFT on curve increase affinity (O2 transferred to the blood and HgB) increase in pH decrease in temp decrease 2,3 DPG Decrease in PCO2
Hypoxia lack of oxygen at the tissue level
Hypoxemia lack of oxygen in the arterial blood (decreased PaO2)
Hyperoxia increased levels of O2 to tissues usually due to the use of supplemental O2
Secondary polycythemia increased production of RBCs. More RBCS available to carry oxygen to the tissues
cyanosis visible bluish tinge of the skin and mucous membranes
CaO2 content in the amount of oxygn in a substance expressed as volume %.
CaO2 calculation CaO2 = (Hb x 1.34 x SaO2) + (PaO2 x .003) Hemoglobin plasma
normal CaO2 20.4 vol%
Alveolar Air Equation PAO2 = [Pb - 47)FiO2]- PACO2/8
Normal A-a gradient 5-10 mmHg on room air no more than 65 mmHg on 100% oxygen
A-a gradient calculation P(A-a)O2 = PAO2- PaO2
Created by: TnJFarrington12