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chap. 9


a loss of feeling or sensation Anesthesia
an agent that partially or completely numbs or eliminates sensitivity with or without loss of consciousness ANESTHETIC
injection of an anesthetic into the space immediately outside of the dura mater that contains a supporting cushion of fat and other connective tissues. Epidural anesthesia
Provision of a painfree state for the entire body General anesthesia
buring energy and nutrients at a higher rate than normal Hypermetabolic
Provision of pain free state in a specific area of the body Local anesthesia
Anesthesia produced by injecting a local anesthetic drug into tissue Infiltration anesthesia
able to dissolve much more easily in lipids than in water Lipophilic
a rare genetic hypermetabolic condition that's characterized by severe overproduction of body heat with rigidity of skeletal muscles Malignant hyperthermia
rhythmical oscillation of the eyeballs Nystagmus
drugs given before the administration of anesthesia Preanesthetic meds
A type of regional anesthesia produced by injection a local anesthetic drug into the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord Spinal anesthesia
Liquids that evaporate upon exposure to the air Volatile liquids
gaseous anesthetics are the principal agents used in the_____ of anessthesia, but agents given by other routes are still used in the ___ if anesthesia. maintenance, induction
Anesthesia is basically characterized by 4 reversible actions unconsciousness, analgesia, immobility, and amnesia
this stage begins when the agent is administered and lasts until loss of consciousness. analgesia, Euphoria, perceptual distortions, amnesia Stage I
there may be excitement and involuntary muscular activity. this skeletal muscle tone increases and breathing is irregular. Hypertension and tachycardia and sudden death may occur in this stage Stage II
surgical anesthesia lasts until spontaneous respiration ceases: respiration, the size of the pupils, reflex characteristics, eyeball movements. this stage is characterized by progressive muscular relaxation Stage III
medullary paralysis begins with respiratory failure and can lead to circulatory collapse. Stage IV
In the induction of anesthesia with intravenous anesthetic agents stage ___ & ____ merge so quickly into one another that they are not apparent. stages I and III
_____ are drugs that immediately produce unconsciousness and complete analgesia. these agents are generally administered by intravenous or inhalation routes General anesthetics
Certain drugs that are gases or_____ at room temp. are administered by inhalation in combo. with air or oxygen. The only gas used routinely for anesthesia is nitrous oxide, commonly called laughing gas. volatile liquid
nitrous oxide provides analgesia equivalent to ___ mg of morphine 10
____ are converted into a vapor Volatile liquids
commonly administered volatile agents are; halothane, enflurane and isoflurane
____ is the most potentant volatile agents Halothane
used for declined halothane, fluothane
most used isoflurane, forane
used for labor methoxyflurane, penthrane
of the inhaled anesthetics____, ____ & ____ are the most commonly used in the U.S nitrous oxide, desflurane, and sevoflurane
a group of enzyme disorders that cause skin problems and neurological complications Porphyria
inhaled general anesthetic drugs may interact with ___ and increase the level of dopamine in the CNS. levodopa (parkinson disease)
Injectable general anesthetics--admin. of intravenous and inhaled anesthetics together allows the dose of the inhaled drug to be___, resulting in decreased probability of serious side effects. reduced
drugs used as intravenous anesthetics include; ___, ___ & ___ opiods, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines.
local anesthetics block the transmission of nerve impulses between the ___ & ___ peripheral nervous system & central nervous system.
local anesthesia is more accurately called ___ or ___ surface anesthesia or regional anesthesia.
Classification of local anesthetics have 2 major groups ___ & ___ ester and amides
___ type aneshetics represented by procaine, contains an ester linkage in their chemical structure ester
___ type drugs represented by lidocaine contains an amide linkage. amide
most of the local anesthetics in common use today belong to the ___ class amide
___ type local anesthetic have been in use longer than amides. ester
____ are associated with higer incidence of allergic reations due to one of their metabolites, para-amino benzoic (PABA ester
local anesthetics may also be use for __ ___ & ___ endoscopy, wart treatment, vasectomy
local anesthetics are contraindicated in ___ pts. elderly
cimetidine is a h2 blocker
quinidine is a arithmea
routes of admin. of local anesthetics are; topical, nerve block, infiltration, spinal epidural
acts as a nerve conduction--blocking agent on the skin or mucus membranes. Topical anesthesia
___ is an example of a topical anesthetic agent. lidocaine
___ affects the bundle of nerves serving the area to operated upon. this medthod is used to block sensation in a limb or large area such as the face. Nerve block anesthesia
which anesthesia is used for longer procedures. bupivacaine ( marcaine)
is injected between the arachnoid and pia mater--effects lower abdomen and legs. spinal anesthesia
is injected in lumnar or caudal--this method is most commonly used in obstetrics during labor and delivery. Epidural anesthesia
the only neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system. Acetylcholine( ach)
compulsive disorder that leads to continue use of a drug, despite harm to the user Addiction
division of the PNS( peripheral nervous system) consisting of the nerve and sense organs that bring info to the CNS. Afferent system
longer acting local anesthesia that metabolized by the liver enzymes Amide
drug that allieviate pain Analgesic
___,___ & ___ primary opid receptors assiciated with analgesia mu, delta, & kappa
guideline for selecting pain relieving dedications occuring to severity of the pain analgesic ladder
subjective sensation that mark the onset of migraine headache Aura
a pro oprotive sedative,they are desirable in this use to cause amnesia as well as relieve axinety and anti convulsive properity. Benzodiazepines--sched. 4
part of the efferent system of the PNS that regulates activities of body structure, not voluntary control. its further divided in 2 major components sympathetic & parasympathetic nervous system autonomic nervous system ( ANS)
nerve receptors on the heart that control the rate & strenght of the heart beat in response to epaneperine (adrenalin) beta 1 receptors
nerve receptor that control vasodilation and relaxation of the smooth muscle of the air ways in response to epanephrine Beta 2 receptors
drugs used for management of moderate to severe pain & to treat opeate addiction thru prevention of opid withdrawl Buprenorphine (buprenex/ subutex)
brian and spinal cord CNS
drugs used in IV form as a treatment for malignant hyperthermia also a skelatal muscle relaxant used for tx of ms, stroke, cerabral palsay, and spinal cord injury. Dantrolene (dantrium)
physical and emotional reliance on a drug dependence
division of the PNS consisting of the nerve that dispatch info out from the CNS efferent system
inhaled anastetic with the advantage fo rapid reduction and recovery Enflurane (ethrane)
short acting local anastetic ester
dantrole, furosemide, glucose, procainamide, sodium bicarbonate 7.5% and sterile water malignant hyperthermia kit
chlorpromazine (thorazine) metoclopramide (reglan) & prochlorperazine(compazine) are: drugs used for migraine headache
anticonvulsants, beta blocker, ccb's estrogen, feverfew, NSAID's , SSRI's and tricyclic antidepressants drugs used as propolaxtyl therapy for migraine headaches
___ is anopioid antagonist, reverse opid drug overdose Nalmefene (revex)
used for relief of pain narcotic analgesic
drugs that block neuromuscular transmission causing paralysis neuromuscular blocking
nerve cell, electicall excitable cells tht process and transmits into thru electrical chemical signals Neuron
biochemical that is formed and released from a neuron in order to stimulate or inhibit the actions of another cell. neurotransmitter
Cardiac muscle, exocrine glands, smooth muscle are part of the autonomic nervous system (Ach)
Cardiac & bronchodilator adrenergic receptors is the? epeneriphine fight r flight chemical
Gaba receptor & present in many nerve endings in the brain gamma aminobuturic acid
alpha & beta receptors are the___ & ___ norepinephrine--noreadrenaline
have analgesic and antipyretic effects NSAID drugs
sedative narcotics containing opium or 1 or more of its natural or synthetic derivatives Opiate
a natural or synthetic narcotic substance opiod
an unpleasant sensation assoc. with actual or potential tissue damage pain
method of allowing a person in pain to administer their own pain relief. patient controlled analgesia (PCA)
consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brian and spinal cord peripheral nervous system PNS
regulates voluntary or conscious functions such as motor movement. somatic nervous system SNS
pain that occurs when no pain should be felt. caused by nerve damage (trauma) sympathetically medicated pain
drug used for management of moderate to moderately sever pain in adults Tramadol (ultram)
meds used for migraines headaches Triptans
migraines are caused by vasodilation and the mechanical stimulation of sensory nerve endings Vascular theory
preanesthetic meds help minimize undesirable effects of anesthetics such as; excessive salivation, bradycardia, and vomiting
adverse effect of inhaled anesthetics may include; anxiety excitement, agfressivness, N/V and ____ . nightmares
Created by: fondaj80