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The Study of Human Development

human development the multidisciplinary study of how people change and how they remain the same over time
newborn birth to 1 month
infant 1 month to 1 year
toddler 1 year to 2 years
preschooler 2 years to 6 years
school-age child 6 years to 12 years
adolescent 12 years to 20 years
young adult 20 years to 40 years
middle-age adult 40 years to 60 years
young-old adult 60 years to 80 years
old-old adult 80 years and beyond
continuity-discontinuity issue whether a particular developmental phenomenon represents a smooth progression throughout the life span (continuity) or a series of abrupt shifts (discontinuity)
universal versus context-specific developmental whether there is just one path of development or several
biological forces include all genetic and health-related factors that affect development
psychological forces include all internal perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and personality factors that affect developmetn
sociocultural forces interpersonal, societal, cultural, and ethnic factors that affect development
life-cycle forces reflect differences in how the same event affects people of different ages
biopsychosocial framework one useful way to organize the biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces on human development
theory organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development
psychosocial theory proposed by Erikson that personality development is determined by the interaction of an internal maturational plan and external societal demands
epigenetic principle each psychosocial strength has its own special time of ascendancy or period of particular importance
operant conditioning consequences of a behavior determine whether a behavior is repeated in the future
reinforcement consequence that increases the future likelihood of the behavior that it follows
punishment consequence that decreases the future likelihood of the behavior that it follows
social cognitive theory based by Bandura on the more complex view of reward, punishment, and imitation
self-efficacy given to people by experience, referring to people's beliefs about their own abilities and talents, Bandura
information-processing theory just as computers consist of both hardware (disk drives, random-access memory, and central processing unit) and software (the programs we use), human cognition consists of mental hardware and mental software
microsystem Bronfenbrenner; at any point in life, the people and objects in an individual's immediate environment
mesosystem connected microsystems
exosystem social settings that a person may not experience firsthand but that still influence development
macrosystem subcultures and cultures in which the microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem are embedded
life-span perspective human development is multiply determined and cannot be understood within the scope of a single framework
selective optimization with compensation (SOC) model three processes form a system of behavioral action that generates and regulates development and aging
life course perspective ways in which various generations experience the biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces of development in their respective historical contexts
systematic observation watching people and carefully recording what they do or say
naturalistic observation people are observed as they behave spontaneously in some real-life situation
structured observation researcher creates a setting that is particularly likely to elicit the behavior of interest
self reports people's answers to questions about the topic of interest
reliability measure is the extent to which it provides a consistent index of a characteristic
validity measure refers to whether it really measures what researchers think it measures
correlational study investigators look at relations between variables as they exist naturally in the world
correlation coefficient abbreciated r, expresses the strength and direction of a relation between two variables
experiment systematic way of manipulating the key factor(s) that the investigator thinks causes a particular behavior
cross-sectional study developmental differences are identified by testing people of different ages in the study
sequential design based on cross-sectional and longitudinal designs
meta-analysis tool that allows researchers to synthesize the results of many studies to estimate relations between variables
Created by: seaman4
Popular Psychology sets




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