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AP Psych-Midterm

Chapters 1-5, 7-10

psychology scientific study of behavior and mental processes
empirical approach standard for all psychological research, study conducted with careful observation and scientifically based research
pseudopsychology hand reading, fortune telling, etc. face practices being set forth as psychological research
confirmation bias pay attention to events that confirm our beliefs and ignore those that don't
experimental psychologists do research on basic processes
teachers of psychology teach psychology
applied psychology use knowledge developed by experimental psychologists and use it to solve human problems
psychology's history starts with ancient greek philosophers. socrates questioned human behavior, taught Plato who went on quest for knowledge and understanding-quest for perfect knowledge. first to delve into areas of cognition
after plato came aristotle who developed theories on perception, cognition, memory, problem solving, and thics
rene descartes asserted that human sensation and behavior result of activity of the nervous system
wundt first to establish psychological laboratory. came up with strucuturalism.
structuralism basic components of human mind. was too simple to be accredited
introspection technique of structuralism that used observation and description of senses to tell about mind
william james father of psychology. came up with functionalism
functionalism mind has mental processes which can be understood through their functions. was more practical than structuralism
gestalt perceptual wholes, how our sensations form perceptual wholes. max weirtheimer
john watson and b.f. skinner leader of behavioral movement
behaviorism study of only the behavior and how the environment affects it.
psychoanalysis and freud unconscious mind--the conflicts, desires, needs
perspectives of psychology biological, evolutionary, cognitive, humanistic, social-cultural, trait, developmental, behavioral
biological perceptive complec biological systems that repson to both hereditary and environmental influences. brain structures and processes-neuroscience.
evolutionary behaviors developed and adapted over time. genetic makeup and ancestry
developmental predictable patterns of change throughout lifetime. interaction between nature and nurture
cognitive information-processing. mental interpretation and experiences. thoughts, expectations, memories, perceptions. cognitive neuroscience is connection between brain's structures and it's mental processes
psychodynamic dark forces of unconscious mind. unconscious needs, conflicts, desires. repressed memories and childhood experiences
humanistic hippy. human growth and potential. positive. influence of self-concept, perceptions, interpersonal relationships, and need for potential growth
behavioral behaviors and learning. stimulus activated by environment as punishment or reward
socialcultural people are social beings, influenced by culture, social norms and expectations, and social learnings
trait individual characteristics make up our individual differences. unique combo of traits
scientific method process of putting ideas to the test
scientific method process hypothesis, controlled test, data, analyze, publish( criticize, replicate)
empirical investigation collecting of objective info by making careful measurements based on direct experience
theory set of testable explanation explanations
operational definitions specific descriptions and explanations of concepts and conditions of experiment
IV and DV IV: independent, the thing that changes and you control in test. DV: the thing being tested and affected by IV
random presentation chance alone determines order of presentation
significant difference are results true or just due to likely chance. results are true when probability that it might due to chance is less then .05
population the pool from which you choose people to test
sample small group of population that researchers test on
representative sample representative distribution of overall population
random sample each person has equal chancee of being selected for experiment
stratified sample which subgroups are represented proportionally
extraneous variable a variable that experimenter cannot control but that can affect the results of the experiment.
participant variable elated to how a variable may influence an individual's characteristics thereby changing how he/she feels.
situational things in the environment that can influence indvidual's response to experiment
confounding variable variable that directly affects independent variable. may be extraneous
ex post facto subjects are chosen based on pre-existing conditions
correlational relationship between two variables. does not define causation
coefficient of correlation degree and relationship between variables. -1 to 1. negative means indirect and positive means direct and 0 means no relation
survey question-answer based research method
naturalistic observation subject studied in natural environment
longitudinal study one type of subject followed and observed for an extended period of time. same group, more accurate, study developmental trends
cross-sectional representative cross section of the population is tested or surveyed during a specific time. provide data for data with smaller group. not as accuarte
cohort sequential study cross section of population, and each cohort is followed and observed for short period of time
personal bias bias to individual's beliefs, preferences, assumptions, or prejudices
expectancy bias observers expect and look for expected results in investigation
double blind study both the participants and the experimenters are clueless about who has the independent variable
bias blind spot think other people are susceptible to bias but they arent themselves
mental set tendency to solve problems based on previous methods of past and similiar problems
congitive dissonance when a person believes on thing but acts a different way
fairness bias sense of fariness takes precedence over rational self-interest. shows how people may be ablee to cooperate
hindsight bias "i knew it all along". tendency to overestimate one's ability to have predicted an event once the outcome is known
institutional review board committee of an institution where research is conducted and reviewed for ethics and methodology
institutional animal care and use committee same as IRB but for animals
deception participants have right to know what is going to happen with them without compromising results of study
APA's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Codes of Conduct must be followed to ensure ethics
debrief participants must be checked to make sure no long term illnesses happen
case history obtains unique and personal information about individual
psychological test standardized test that measure psychological qualities within individual
lab observation observations on artifical environment set forth by experimenter
frequency distributions shows how frequent each various score is in a set of data
histogram bar graph that displayed frequence distribution
descriptive statistics numbers that describe main characteristics od data: mean, median, mode
measures of central tendencies mean, median, mode
mean can be influenced by extreme results
median separate upper half and lower half with middle score. not influenced by extreme results
mode most occuring result
range difference between highest and lowest values in frequence distribution
normal distrubtion bell shaped curve describing spread of characteristics throughout population
binet simon approach first intelligence test. scores were representatives of current performance not innate intelligence. helped identify the gifted, from the normal, from the mentally retarded. alfred binet and theodore simon
mental age average age at which individual achieves a certain score
chronological age number of years since indiviual's birth
stanford binet american test of intellegence.
intelligence quotient (IQ) MA/CA X 100. have to grade on curve because it makes adults look super smart and kids look mentally retarded
psychometrics field of mental measurements
charles spearman general intelligence. g factor, general intellgience underlying mental activity
cattell broke intelligence into two factors crystallized and fluid intelligence.
crystallized knowledge person has acquired and the ability to access that knowledge
fluid ability to see complex relationships and solve problems
stern berg triacrchic theory. the three intelligences
practical ability to cope with people and events in environment. street smart
analystical intelligence ability to analyze and solve problems
creative intelligence ability to develop new ideas and relationships
gardner multiple intelligences-linguistic, logical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal.
is intelligence considered the same all across the board to cultures nope, different cultures have different views of intelllignece
biopsychology studies the interaction of biology, behavior, and mental processes
neuroscience focuses on the brain and its role in psychological processes
neuron cell specialized to receive and transmit information to other cells in the body.
what are the three types of neurons sensory, motor, and interneurons
sensory neuron are also called afferent neurons
sensory neurons are neurons that carry messages from sense receptors from the body to the central nervous system
motor neurons are also called efferent neurons
motor neurons are nerve cells that carry messages away from central nervous system toward the muscles and glands
dendrites a branched fiber that extends outward from the the main cell body and carries information into the neurons
soma part of a cell containing the nucleus which includes the chromosomes. the cell body
axon an extended fiber conducts information from the soma to the terminal buttons information travels along the axon in the form of an electric charge
resting potential the electrical charge of the axon in its inactive state
active potential nerve impulse caused by a change in the electrical charge across the cell membrane of the axon. when the neuron fires. this charge travels down the axon and causes neurotransmitters to be released
synapse the gap that serves as a communication link between neurons, synapses also occur between neurons and the muscles or glands they serve
terminal button structures at the end of the axon, which contain neurotransmitters that carry the neuron's message into synapse
synaptic transmission relaying of info across the synapse by means of chemical neurotransmitter
how do neurons work the soma gets aroused by messages received by dendrites. soma creates own message and passes across axon to the terminal buttons which release vesicles filled with neurotransmitters that cross synapse and arrive at the receptor sites of the receiving cell
all or none principle refers to the fact that the action potential in the axon occurs either full blown or not at all. neuron either fires or doesnt
interneurons nerve cell that relays messages between nerve cells, particularly between those of the brain and spinal cord
what are inhibitory and excitatory messages inhibitory tell the nerve cell to not fire, and excitatory messages tells the nerve cell to fire. the weight or amount of each determines whether or not the nerve cell fires
neurotransmitters chemical messengers that relay neural messages across synapse
dopamine controls voluntary movements, sensations of pleasure and reward. problems with may lead to schizophrenia and parkinson's disease
seotonin regulates sleep, dreams, mood, pain, aggression, appetite, and sexual behavior. problems with lead to depression, OCD, and other anxiety disorders
norepinephrine controls moods and arousal, problems with cause depression
acetylcholine regulates memory, problems with results may lead to alzeheimer's
gaba inhibitory neurotransmitter, regulates anxiety. problems with can lead to anxiety disorders
glutamate top excitory neurotransmitter. learning and memory. problems can lead to brain damage
endorphins all or nothing responses. fight or flight responses. pleasure, sensation, and control of pain. regulation of eating behaviors
plasticity nervous system's ability to adapt or change as the result of experience. helps nervous system adapt to physical damage
glial cells form the mylein sheath which a fatty insulation around the axon that protects the cell and speeds the conduction of the impulses along the axon. the thicker the sheath the faster the impulses
nervous system entire network of neurons in the body, including the central and peripheral nervous system
central nervous system CNS brain and the spinal cord. body's command central. spinal cord is connection between brain and the rest of the nervous system. contains interneurons
peripheral nervous system PNS contains autonomic and somatic nervous systems. is the entire nervous system outside brain and spinal cord. contains the motor and sensory neurons. messages between brain and sense organs and muscles and everything else
somatic nervous system division of PNS that carries sensory information to central nervous system and sends voluntary messages to body's skeletal muscles. VOLUNTARY, CONSCIOUS PROCESS muscle movement
autonomic nervous system portion of PNS that sends communication between the central nervous system and internal organs and glands. INVOLUNTARY BY YOU, heartbeat, digestion
sympathetic division part of the autonomic nervous system that alerts the body for stressful and emergency situations
parasympathetic division part of autonomic system that monitors body's function to calm it down after arousal by sympathetic division.
what is the somatic nervous system divided into sensory nervous system (afferent neurons) and motor nervous (efferent neurons)
endocrine system hormone system. body's chemical messenger system. endocrine, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries, and testes
hormones chemical messenger used by the endocrine system
agonist drug or chemical that enhances or mimics the effects of neurotransmitters
antagonist drug or other chemical that inhibits the effects of neurotransmitters
brain stem most primitive of the brain's major 3 layers. includes medulla, pons, and reticular formation . sets brain's general alertness level and warning system
medulla brain stem structure. controls breathing and heart rate. sensory and motor pathways connecting brain to body
pons bran stem structure. regulates brain actibity during sleep and dreaming.
reticular formation core of the brain stem. arouses the cortex to keep the brain alert and attentive to new stimulation
thalamus brain stem structure. atop of it. relay station of messages between brain and brain stem and body
cerebellum structure of the brain on top of brain stem. responsible for coordinated movement
limbic system middle layer of brain, involved in emotion, memory. has hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus
hippocampus limbic system structure. involved with memory
amygdala limbic system structure. involved in emotions
hypothalamus limbic system structure. manages body's internal state.
cerebral cortex gray matter of brain. higher level thinking and complex thinking
three parts of the brain brain stem, cerebrum, limbic system
frontal lobe movement and thinking
motor cortex voluntary movement
parietal lobe touch sensation and perceiving spatial relationship
occipital lobw back of the brain, contains visual cortex
visual cortex visual processing
temporal loves long term memory
cerebral dominance the tendency of each part of the brain's hemisphere to control certain and different functions
right bbrain negative emotions. simple commands. spatial and auditory and visual memories.
left brain positive emotions. control of muscles and speech. spontaneous speaking and writing. understanding speech and writing
corpus callosum band of nerve cells that connects the two cerebral hemispheres
sensation process by which stimulation of a sensory receptor produces neural impulses that the brain interprets as sensory images. just neural impulse that create a sense nothing more. has to do with changing stimuli
perception meaning and interpretation of sensation.
transduction transformation of one form of energy into another. transformation fo stimulus information into nerve signals by the sense organs.
sensory adaptation loss of responsiveness in receptors cells after stimulation has remained unchanged for a while.
absolute threshold amount of stimulation necessary for a stimulus to be detected.
difference threshold smallest amount by which a stimulus can be changed for the difference to be noted
just noticeable difference same as difference threshold
weber's law size of the JND is proportional to the intensity of the stimulus. if something is loud, it has to become extra loud for you to notice. if something is soft it has to become extra soft for you to notice.
signal detection theory sensation is a judgement the sensory system makes about incoming stimulation
retina thin light sensitive layer at the back of the eyeball. retina contains millions of photoreceptors and other nerve cells
photoreceptors light sensitive cells in the retina that connvert light energy to neural impulses.
rods photoreceptros that are especially sensitive to dime light but not color
cones photoreceptros that are especially sensitive to color and not dim light
fovea tiny area of sharpest vision in the retina
optic nerve bundle of neurons that carries visual information from retina to the brain
blind spot point where the optic nerve exits the eye and where tthere are no photoreceptors
what are the sensations of the vision color, brightness, pattern,s motion, textures,
what is the most important sese vision.
visual capture refers to how vision takes over from the other senses and overrides all other (decider in chief)
color blindness color deficiency. inability to distinguish between colors. confuse red and green or yellow and blue
nearsightedness myopia can see object close but not objects far away. caused by enlongated eyeball or overly curved cornea.
farsightedness can see distant but not close objects. to short eyeball or not sufficienntly curved
how does sound word airborne sound waves are relayed to inner ear. the cochlea focuses on the bivrations on the basilar membrane. the basilar membrane does transduction. neural messages are sent to audotiory cortex
tympanic membrane eardrum
cochlea primary organ of hearing, coiled tube in the inner ear, where sound waves are transduced into nerve messages
basilar membrane thins strip of tissue sensitive to vibration in the cochlea. transduction happens here
sensation of sound pitch, loudness, tmibber
sensorineural deafness nerve deafness. deficit in body's ability to transmit impulses from cochlea to the brain
vestibular senses the sense of body's orientation with respect to gravity. vestibular sense is closely associated with the inner ear
kinesthetic sense sense of body position and movement of body parts relative to each other
olfaction sense of smell
pheromones chemical signal released by organisms to communicate with other members of the same species
how does smell work volatile substances. odors interact with receptor proteins inside protein and the stimulated nerve cells convey information to brain's olfactory bulb. does not go through thalamus
gustation sense of taste. soluble substances
sensations of taste sweet sour salty bitter
skin senses sensory systems for processing touch, warmth, cold, texture, and pain
gate control theory neural gate that in some circumstances block incoming pain signals. pain depends on relative amount of traffic in two different pathways which carry into from sensory organs to teh brain. fast fiberss send sensory information to brain. slow fibers lag
why is touch a priority sense essential for growth
where does pain exist in our brain
percept meaningful product of perception, often an image that has been associated with concepts, memories of events, emotions, and motives
bottom up processing when sensations happen first and the brain interprets them
top down processing when there is cognitive image or sensation that the brain looks for
perceptual constancies ability to recognize the same object as remaining constant under different conditions,
consciousness awareness of outside world and one's own mental processes thoughts feelings and perception. subjective. private. every-changing. self-reflective. keeps brain from overloading
neural basis of consciousness no single place where it resides. collection of largely separate but interactive infoprocessing model. by-product of the brain
preconscious mental events outside of awareness that can be retrieved
unconscious mental events kept out of the consciousness but that can affect behavior.
emotional uncnosciousness emphasis that emotinoal and motivational processes operate unconsciously and influence behavior
altered states of consciousnes sleep, hyponosis, drug abus, meditation
sleep state of consciousness. no knowledge of being in it until we wake up. slow breathing and irregular brain waives
sleep is regulated by process of falling asleep is by forebrain. rem is regulated by brain stem. limbic system are highly active druing rem
restoration model sleep recharges our run down bodies and allows us to recover physical and menta fatigue
evolutionary model sleep increases species chances of survival in relation to its environmental demands
stage 1 of sleep. theta waves. images of hallucination (sensory experiences occur without sensory stimuli). have senation of floating or falling
stage 2 of sleep spindles- rapid rhythmic brainwave activity. officially asleep. 20 minute duration. sleep talking can occur here
stage 3 and 4 delta waves. deep sleep. children wet beds, adults sleep walk. 40-45 minutes. heart and breathing rate slow.
when stage 4 ends the elctrical activity of the brain increases and the sleeper climbs back up through the stages in reverse order. 123432 then REM
rem sleep nearly an hour after you fall asleep. 10 minutes intially then more and more throughout night
active sleep (REM) heart rate rises, breathing rapid, every 30 seconds eyes move rapidly. motor cortex still active. brani stem blocks messages from body so essentially paralyzed. not easily awakened.
sleep cycles occur every 90 minutes. you are in rem 20-25 percent of the night
insomnia persistent problems in falling or staying asleep over an extended period of time
dreams hallucinations of the mind. can occur in any stage but mostly in REM \. some fake while others confused with reality
nightmares distrubing dreams that cause dreamer to wake up feeling anxious and or frigthtened
night terror sleep disorder. mostly kids. screaming, thrashing around. doublying of heart and breahting. occurs in stage 4
lucid dreams when you realizes you are dreaming
recurring dreams dreams that repeat themselsves with little variation in story or theme. unconsciuos conflict that needs to be resolved
prophetic dreams seem to tell the future. dreaming mind pieces things together that we normally overlook to create a dream
freuds things to dreams to guard sleep to fulfill wishes of the unconsious.
latent content the actual unconscious desires disguised and hidden in dreams
manifest content surgace story that dreamer report
dream work latent turns to manifest
alfred adler tools we use to solve our problems
activation synthesis theory no meaning. by-product of rem neural activity.brain is bombarded with stuff and so makes sense of them in works of dreams
activation componenet brain bombarded with neural activity
synthesis componenet brain tries to make sense of bombarded stuff
hyponisis an induced state of awareness, usually characterized by heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, and highly focuses attentino
meditation a state of consciousness often indueced by focusing on a reptitive behavior, assuming certain body positinos, and minimizing external stimulation.
psychoactive drugs chemicals that affect mental processes and behavior by their effects on the brain
agonistic drugs increase activity of neurotransmitters
antagonistic drugs decreases activity of neurotransmitters
biological factor that affect drugs potnetial genetic role. influence sensitivity and tolerance to drugs
psychological factors that affect drugs have difficulty adjusting to life's demands and so vulnerable to drug addictino
environmental factors that affect drugs physical and social setting. behaviors of others
hallucinogens. LSD and marijuana. distort perception and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory stimuli. generally psychological dependence unknown physical dependence
depressants alcohol, heroin, barbiturates. calm neural activity and slow body functions. moderate to high physical and psychological dependence
stimulants cocaine, nicotine, ecstacy. excite neural activity and arouse body functinos. high physical and psychological dependence
opiates heroin, morphine. highly addictive. produce profound sense of wel being and have strong relieiving properties
physical dependence body adjusts and comes to need the drug for everyday functioning
psychological dependence desire to obtain or use a drug even with no physical dependence
tolerance reduced effectiveness of a drug after repeated use
addiction conditino in which a person continues to use a drug despites its adverse effects.
withdrawal a pattern of uncomfortabl or painful physical symptoms and cravings due to decreased amount or eliminated drug
whats the practical use of hypnosis pain reliever.
senations brain niterprets sensory stimuli as vision, sound, taste, feel
perception gives meaning to sensation
weber's law higher the intensity of the stimuli the higher the just noticeable difference
signal detection theory how we detect signal and make a judgement of the sensation
bottom up stimulation first and then brain interprets and understands it
top down brain has certain expectation, memories, and other cognitive factors linked to the sensation it is seeking
gestalt much of perception is shaped by innate factors built in the brain. patterns fo whole
figure ground figure is the part of the stimuli that demands attention while ground is the background
closure tendency to fill in gaps in figures and see complete figures
law of simliarity tend to group simliar objects together in perception
law of proximity tend to group close objects together
law of continuity we prefer connected and continuous figures
law of common fate tend to group simliar objects that share common motion or destination ( a school of fish)
law of pragnanz simplest organization requires least cognitive effort. we tend to see fully developed concepts
perceptual set readiness to detect a particular stimulus in a given context as when a person who is afraid interprets an unfamiliar sound as a threat
how does the sleep cycle pattern go stage 1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, REM, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, REM, 2, 3, 2, REM, 2, 3, 2, REM, 2, REM, awake
sleep apnea a respiratory disorder in which the person intermittently stop breathing many times while asleep
memory a system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information
how is memory related to a cognitive system memory works closely with perceptual systems, it takes information from the senses and selectively converts it into meaningful patterns that can be stored and access later when needed
what is the process of memory referred to the information processing model
information processing model cognitive understanding of memory, emphasizing how info is changed when it is encoded, stored, and retrieved
encoding select some stimulus from among a vast array of sensory information that assaults you. find some pattern with it and then tag it
storage retention of encoded material over time
retrieval properly encoded info, takes only a second to retrieve with good cues. retrieval doesn't always word, for example if memory wasn't encoded right or stored in the wrong section
process of memory sensory, working, long-term
sensory memory holds sensory information for split seconds to see if it is important enough to move it onto to working memory
working memory takes information selectively from sensory memory and connects it with items already in long term storage. it is essentially work table that adds perception to material being consciously payed attention to
long term memory final stage of processing, receives information from working memory and stores it
storage capacity of the stages types of memories sensory- 12-16 items. working- 7+ chunks. long term- unlimited
duration of the three stages of memories sensory- less than 1/2 second. working- 20-30 seconds. long term- unlimited
structures of the three stages of memories sensory- different parts of the brain due to dependence on senses. working- central executive, phonological loop, visuospatial. long term- procedural and declarative.
biological basis for the three stages of memory sensory-separate sensory pathways. working memory- hippocampus, frontal lobe, and temporal lobe. long term-cerebral cortex.
chunking organization pieces of information into smaller number of meaningful units (or chunks). a process that frees up space in working memory
sensory register a register holding different kind of sensory information
what senses do: iconic, echoic, tactile, olfactory, and gustatory sensory memory register? iconic- visual. echoic- auditory. tactile- tough. olfactory- smell. gustatory- taste.
automatic processing unconscious encoding
effortful processing encoding that requires attention and consciou effort.
hierarchies arrange concepts (mental representations of relating things) from more general to specific
maintenance rehearsal working memory process in which information is merely repeated or reviewed to keep it from fading while in working memory.
elaborative rehearsal a working memory process in which information is actively reviewed and related to information already in long term memory
eeidetic imagery an especially clear and persistent form of memory that is quite rare; sometimes known as a "photographic" memory
structural encoding remembering physical structures of stimuli
acoustic (phonemic) encoding remembering by emphasizing the sound of the stimuli
visual codes remembering by emphasizing the visual imagery presented
semantic codes remembering by emphasizing the meaning of the stimuli
levels of processing theory the explanation for the fact that information that is more thoroughly connected to meaningful items in long term memory will be remembered better
procedural memory type of long term memory that stores memories of things are done
declarative memory type of long term memory that is for information that we can describe-the facts we know or the experiences we remember
declarative memory has what other types of memory within it semantic and episodic
semantic memory memory that stores general knowledge and concepts
episodic memory memory that stores personal events or "episodes"
anterograde amnesia the inability to form memories of new information
retrograde amnesia inability to remember information previously stored in memory
consolidation process by which short term memories are changed to long term memories over a period of time
implicit memory a memory that was deliberately learned or of which you have no conscious awareness
explicity memory memory that has been processed with attention and can be consciously recalled
retrieval cues stimuli that are used to bring a memory to consciousness or into behavior
priming a technique for cuing implicit memories by providing cues that stimulate a memory without awareness of the connection between the cue and the retrieved memory
recall a retrieval method in which one must reproduce previously presented information
recognition a retrieval method in which one must identify present stimuli as having been previously presented
encoding specificity principle the doctrine that memory is encoded and stored with specific cues related to the context in which it was formed. the more closely the retrieval cues match the form in which the information was encoded, the better it will be remembered
mood-congruent memory a memory process that selectively retrieves memories that match (are congruent with) one's mood
Tip of the Tongue phenomenon the inability to recall a word, while knowing that it is in memory.
transience the impermanence of a long term memory. it is based on the idea that long term memories gradually fade in strength over time
forgetting curve a graph plotting the amount of retention and forgetting over time for a certain batch of material. typical curve is steep at first, becoming flatter as time goes one
absent mindedness forgetting caused by lapse in attention
blocking forgetting that occurs when an item in memory cannot be accessed or retrieved
blocking is caused by interference
proactive interference a cause of forgetting by which previously stored information prevents learning and remembering new information
retroactive interference a cause of forgetting by which newly learned information prevents retrieval of previously stored material
what can cause interference the greater the similarity between two sets of material to be learned the greater the interference between them (learning french and spanish. meaningless material is more vulnerable to interference than meaningful material. and emotional material.
serial position effect a form of interference related to the sequence in which information is represented. generally items in the middle of the sequence are less well remembered than items presented first or last.
mnemonics techniques for improving memory, especially by making connections between new material and information already in long term memory
innateness theory of language children acquire language not merely by imitating but also by following an inborn program of steps to acquire the vocab and grammar of the language in their environment
language acquisition device a biologically organized mental structure in the brain that facilitates the learning of language because it is innately programmed with some of the fundamental rules of grammar
babbling stage early stage of language development, occurring between 3-4 months, when children make nonsensical unrelated sounds
One-word Stage the stage where children mainly speak in one word
Two-word Stage at approximately around the age of 2, children start speaking in two word sentences.
Syntax the rules specify how words should be ordered in a sentence in order to give that sentence meaning
Semantics branch of linguistics and logic concerned with meaning
Phoneme smallest phonetic unit in a language that is capable of conveying a distinction in meaning
Telegraphic Speech speech that sounds like a telegram, has words arranged in an order that makes sense and contains almost all nouns and verbs
Linguistic Determinism the idea that language shapes cognition and thought.
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis a hypothesis that language determines our character and the way we think. we are shaped by the language around us and therefore so is our character
concepts mental representations of categories of tiems or ideas, based on experience
schema a knowledge cluster or general conceptual framework that provides expectations about topics, events, objects, people, and situations in one's life
script a cluster of knowledge about sequence of events and actions expected to occur in particular settings
algorithms problem solving procedures or formulas that guarantee a correct outcome, if correctly applied
heuristics cognitive strategies of rules of thumb used as shortcuts to solve complex mental tasks. do not guarantee a correct solution
mental set the tendency to respond to anew problem in the manner used for previous problem
functional fixedness the inability to perceive a new use for an object associated with a different purpose; a form of mental set
hindisght bias the tendency after learning about an event to second guess or believe that one could have predicted the event in advance
anchoring bias a faulty heuristic caused by basing an estimate on completely unrelated quantity
representativeness bias a faulty heuristic strategy based on the presumption that once people or events are categorized, they share all the features of other members in that category
convergent thinking style of thought that attempts to consider all available information and arrive at the single best possible answer.
divergent thinking thinking that moves away in diverging direction so as to involve a variety of aspects and which sometimes lead to new ideas and concepts
representative heuristics a cognitive bias in which an individual categorizes a situation based on pattern of previous experiences or beliefs about the scenario
availability heuristics how easily something that you’ve seen or heard can be accessed in your memory. the sooner you've seen/heard something the sooner you remember and use it
emotions a four part process that involves physiological arousal, subjective feelings, cognitive interpretations, and behavioral expression, all of which interact. rather than occurring in linear sequence. help organisms deal with important events
display rules the permissible ways of displaying emotions in a particular society
universal expression of emotions facial language/expression are universal although culture decides when we express them
7 universal facial expressions anger, contempt, happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear
lateralization of emotion different influences of the two brain hemispheres on various emotions. left hemisphere apparently influences positive emotions and the right hemisphere influences negative emotions
physiological arousal type of response neural, hormonal, visceral, and muscular changes
subjective feelings type of response the private experience of one's internal affective state
cognitive interpretation type of response attaching meaning to the emotional experience by drawing on memory and perceptual processes
social/behavioral reactions expressing emotion through gestures, facial expressions, or other actions
james lang theory emotion is a product of physiological response. stimulus produces a physical response that in turn produces an emotion
cannon-bard theory emotion is part of the physiological response. they both occur at the same time
two factor theory (schachter-singer) emotions result from an evaluation of the cognitive appraisal and physical arousal
cognitive appraisal individual decide on an appropriate emotional response
opponent process theory emotions have pairs. when one is triggered the other is surpressed
emotional intelligence the ability to understand and control emotional response
motivation all the processes involved in starting, directing, and maintaining physical and psychological activities
drive biologically instigated motivation
motive an internal mechanisms that selects and directs behavior.
uses for motivation connects observable behavior to internal state (hunger = social pressure or drive), accounts for differences in behavior (intensity), explains perseverance despite adversity, relates bio to behavior
intrinsic motivation desire to engage in an activity for its own sake. internal pleasure
extrinsic motivation desire to engage in an activity to achieve and external consequence, a reward
conscious motivation having the desire to engage in an activity and being aware of that desire
unconscious motivation having a desire to engage in an activity but being consciously unaware of the desire.
drive reduction theory helps us meet biological needs. motivates to take action in order to reduce the tension
arousal theory seek optimum level of excitement and arousal
yerkes dodson law performance increases with physiological or mental arousal but only to a point. when arousal becomes too high, performance decreases
incentive theory rewards and punishments
cognitive dissonance motivates us to have consistent thoughts and behaviors. when those do not meet, individuals experience unpleasant mental tensions. hypocrite
hierarchy of needs. maslow's theory biological needs, safety needs, attachment and affiliation needs, esteem needs, and then self-actualization
approach-approach conflict choosing between two good options
approach avoidance conflict a conflict in which there are both appealing and negative aspects to the decision to be made
avoidance avoidance conflict lesser of two evils
multiple approach-avoidance conflict must choose between options that have both many attractive and negative aspects.
fixed action pattern genetically based behaviors seen across a species that can be set off by a specific stimuli
need biological imbalance that threatens survival
need for achievment mental state that produces a psychological motive to excel or to reach some goal
set point tendency of the body to maintain a certain level of body fat and body weight
sexual response cycle four stage sequence of arousal, plateau, orgasm, and resolution in both men and women
Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis The hypothesis that frustration leads to aggressive behavior. Frustration develops when an aggressor is unable to attain a goal
instinct theory we do things based on instinctual urges
stress a physical and mental response to a challenging or threatening situation
stressor a stressful stimuli
general adaption syndrome pattern of general physical responses that take essentially the same form in responding to any serious chronic stressor
alarm reaction first stage of GAS which the body mobilizes its resources to cope with stressor
resistance second stage of GAS during which the body adapts to and uses resources to cope with stressor
exhaustion third stage of GAS during which body depletes its resources in responding to ongoing stressor
type a personality intense, angry, competitive, or perfectionistic characteristics
type b personality relaxed and unstressed
learned helplessness pattern of failure to respond to noxious stimuli after and organism learns its responses are ineffective
developmental psychology psychological specialty that studies how organisms change over time as the result of biological and environmental influences
nature-nurture long-standing discussion over the relative importance of nature (heredity)and nurture (environment) in their influence on behavior and mental processes. genes vs. life experiences
john locke said that children are born with a "blank slates" that their experiences would be written on
rousseau everyone was hard-wired from birth to be who they are. had predispositions to be a certain way
continuity perspective that development is gradual and continuous. gradual.
discontinuity perspective that development proceeds in an uneven fashion. series of separate stages
developmental stages periods of life initiated by significant transitions or changes in physical or psychological functioning
prenatal period developmental period before birth
zygote fertilized egg
embryo name of the developing organisms during first 8 weeks after conception.
fetus developing organism between the embryonic stage and birth
teratogens substances from the environment, including viruses, drugs, and other chemicals, that can damage the developing organism during prenatal.
placenta organ interface between the embryo or fetus and the mother, the placenta separates the bloodstreams, but it allows the exchange of nutrients and waste products
neonatal period from birth to first month
what are newborns with basic reflexes (unlearned responses to stimuli). withdraw limb to escape pain. will cry. rooting reflex (turn to face to nipple) and grasping reflex (closing hands). can recognize human voices and faces even though blind
infancy time between the end of the neonatal period and the establishment of language
attachment enduring social emotional relationship between a child and a parent or other regular caregiver
imprinting a primitive form of learning in which some young animals follow and form an attachment to first moving object they see and hear
baby temperament mood, activity level, and emotional stability
securely attached have strong bond with their parent/guardian, generally healthy mentally and physically
slow to warm up less cheery, irregular in sleep, and eating patterns, generally slow when adapting to change
easy baby happy, regular in sleep and eating, adaptable and not readily upset
difficult baby glum, resistant to change, and irritable
mary ainsworth and harry harlow studied attachment in children
maturation process by which the genetic program manifests itself over time
affect of parents and guardians affect us most. genetics. teach us how to form proper relationships and forms strong attachments. shape attitudes, values, manners, faith, and politics.
authoritarian impose rules and expect obedience
permissive submit to their children's desires, make few demands and use little punishment
authoritative both parents are demanding and responsive. more rules and enforce them and explain why they made the rules and often encourage open dialog, especially with their older children
schemas are pliable mental molds into which we pour experiences
assimilation mental process that modifies new information to fit it into existing schemas
accommodation mental process the restructures existing schemes so that new information is better understood.
jean piaget cognitive development
sensorimotor stage first stage in piaget. birth to age 2 (infants). child relies heavily on senses and action. lack of object permanence until after 8 months
object permanence awareness that object exists even after it can no longer be seen
mental representation ability to form internal images of objects and events
preoperational stage second stage of piaget. age 2-7. marked by well developed mental rep. and use of language. lack performance of mental operations and logical reasoning skills. kids have egocentrism and animistic thinking. lack conservation and irreversibility
egocentrism self-centered inability to realize that there are other viewpoints that one's own
animistic thinking inanimate objects are imagined to have life and mental processes
irreversibility inability to think through a series of events or mental operations and then mentally reverse the steps
conservation understanding that physical properties of an object of substance do not change hen appearences change but nothing is added or taken away
concrete operational stage third stage of piaget, 7-11. logical thinking develops, gain conservation, can perform mental operations, and can grasp mathematical transformation. cannot grasp abstract thinking
mental operations solving problems by manipulating images in one's mind
formal operational stage final stage of piaget. 12 to adulthood. reasoning expands from simply oncrete thoughts to encompass abstract thinking. imagined realities and symbols. first stage that children display a strong potential for mature , moral reasoning
erikson psychosocial development
psychosocial development erikson. developmental stages refer to 8 major challnges that appear successively across the lifespan, which require an individual to rethink his or her goals and relationships with others
trust vs. mistrust infants. basic need of survival will be provided and will develop sense of trust and security and will form good relationships. if not met then will develop sense of mistrust, anxiety and will fail to form meaningful relationships.
autonomy vs. self-doubt toddlers. learn to do things on own. must know they are capable of handling themselves. otherwise will feel inadequate and insecure about themselves, low self-esteem and confidence.
initiative vs. fuilty 3-6, pre-school. must be confident to learn to initiate and carry out plans. self-dependent. otherwise low self-esteem and confidence and etc.
competence vs. inferiority elementary school. adequacy in basic social and intellectual skills,to gain pleasure and sense of self-pride. otherwise low self-esteem
identity vs. role confusion teens/adolescence. must develop on identity and have comfortable sense of self, both unique and social accepted. otherwise will leave individual confused and sad.
intimacy vs. isolation early adulthood. ability to for close and committed relationships. gain acceptance and be loved. otherwise will be sad and lonely
generativity vs. stagnation middle aged folk. focus of concern beyond oneself to ant to contribute to world through family and work. otherwise feel lack of purpose in life.
integrity vs. despair old people. coping with impending death and view successes and failure in life. must have satisfaction and wholesome view on life. otherwise feel futile and disappointed
adolescence puberty to early adulthood
primary sex characteristics sex organs and genitals
secondary sex characteristics gender-related physical features that develop during puberty. breasts, facial hair, deep voices, wide hips, pubic hairs, etc.
adolescent egocentrism heightened self-consciousness of teens. tend to believe that we are center of universe
imaginary audience belief that others are interested in your life as you are
personal fable sense of uniqueness and invincibility that all adolescents possess. big fish in small pond
gender roles set of prescribed actions for either sex. differ from culture to culture. play huge role in how you develop cognitively and socially
gender identity develop from gender roles
androgyny characteristics of both sexes
rolling car experiment rolling car proved babies ability to have object permanence and visual cliff proved baby's
kohlberg moral development
preconventional morality before age 9. based on self-interest.
kohlberg stage 1 egocentric: punishment and obedience based.
kohlberg stage 2 cost/benefit orientation: reciprocity. awards or mutual benefits.
conventional morality adolescences caring about hers and upholding laws and sochial norms
kohlberg stage 3 good child orientation. gain acceptance, avoid social disapproval, start thinking about others.
kohlberg stage 4. law and order orientation. avoid penalties/jail. not everyone makes it this far
post conventional morality affirms people's agreed upon rights and/or what one personally perceives as basic, ethical, principles
stage 5 kohlberg social contract orientation. hardly anyone reaches here. promote welfare of one's society while helping yourself. win/win situation. what is moral may not be legal.
kohlberg stage 6 theoretical stage. ethical principle orientation. morality is based on one's conscious. achieve justice; be consistent with one's principle. no mutual benefit for oneself.
carol gilligan bashed kohlberg for not studying females.
james lang theory emotion is a product of physiological response. stimulus produces a physical response that in turn produces an emotion
two factor theory emotions result from an evaluation of the cognitive appraisal and physical arousal
approach approach choosing between two good options
general adaptions syndrome body's reaction to stress. alarm to resistance to exhaustion
visual cliff baby crawls across pexiglass with "drop" underneath it.
personality the psychological qualities that bring continuity to an individual's behavior in different situations and at different times
psychoanalysis freud's system of treatment for mental disorders. the term is often used to refer to psychoanlytic theory as well
uncionscious freudian theory, this is the psychic domain of which the individual is not aware but that is the storehouse of repressed impulses, drives, conflicts, unavailable to consciousness
lbido the freudian concept of psychic energy that drives individuals to experience sensual pleasure
id primitive unconscious portion of the personality that houses the most basic drives and stores repressed memories
superego mind's storehouse of values, including moral attitudes learned from parents and from society, roughly the same as the common notion of the conscience
ego the conscious, rational part of the personality, charged with keeping peace between thee superego and the id
what technique did freud utilize free association or talking
psychosexual staages successive, instinctive patterns of associating ppleasure with stimulation of specific bodily areas at different times of life. oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
oral stage 1st year. the challenge is to overcome dependency and desire is oral stimulation by sucking, eating, crying, babbling.
anal stage 1-3 years. challenge is toilet training and self control. and the desires are anal stimulation by bladded and bowel function
phallic stage 3-6 years. challenge resolving oedipus complex, involving erotic attraction to parent of opposite sex and hostiility to the parent of the same sex
latency stage 6 years to puberty. challenge is to consciously learn modesty and shame while unconsciously still dealing with repressed oedipal complex. desire to repress sexual and aggressive desires,
genital stage adulthood. desire to have mature sexual relationships. challenge is to displace energy into healthy activities and establish new relationship with parents
oedipus complex according to freud, a largely unconsciou process whereby boys displace an erotic attraction toward mother to females of their own age and at the same time, identify with their fathers
identification the mental process by which an individual tries to become like another person, especially the same sex parent
penis envy according to freud, the female desires to have a penis--a condition that usually results in their attraction to males
fixation occurs when psychosexual development is arrested at an immature stage
ego defense mechanisms largely unconscious mental strategies employed to reduce the experience of conflict or anxiety
repression an unconscious process that excludes unacceptable thoughts and feelings from awareness and memory
denial avoid a difficult situation by simply denying that it exists.
rationalization giving socially acceptable reasons for actions that are really based on motives that they believe to be unacceptable
reaction formation people act in exact opposition to their true feelings. child with low self-esteem becomes a bully
displacement shifting your reaction from the real source of your distress to a safer individual or object
regression adopt immature, juvenile behaviors such as crying, hitting, throwing things, to deal with stress just like when they were younger
sublimation making sexual or aggressive desires available in a way that are acceptable like for example joining a sports team
projection attributing our own unconscious desires to other people or objects. in small children that often say it's not their own but another person's fault
projective tests personality assessment instruments. based on freud's ego defense mechanism of projection
rorschach inkblot technique a projective test requiring subjects to describe what they see in inkblots
thematic apperception test a projective test requiring subjects to make up stories that explain ambiguous pictures
psychic determinism freud's assumption that all our mental and behavioral responses are caused by unconscious traumas, desires, or conflicts
neo-freudians refers to theoriests who broke with freud but whose theories retain psychodynamic aspect, especially a focus on motivation as the source of energy for the personality
carl jung prodigee of freud who ventured off from freud because of the sex and believed in a spiritual aspect to personality
personal unconsciou similar to that of freud's unconscious and id
collective unconscious jung's addition to the unconscious, involving a reservoir for instinctive memories including archetypes which exist in all people
archetypes ancient memory images in the collective unconscious. appear and reappear in art, literature, and folktales around the world. mother, father, shadow, trickster, old wise man
karen horney emphasized social roles not unconscious sexual urges. women wanted the same rights and opportunity as men and were not envy of the penis (womb envy). healthy personality = social relationships + fulfillment of one's potential
basic anxiety karen horney. sense of certainty and loneliness in a hostile world and can lead to maladjustment
neurotic needs sign of neurosis in horney's theory. developed if there is failure in achieving social relationships or fulfillment of one's potential. is a way to deal with it all
alfred adler believed people are motivated by a need to overcome feelings of inferiority
inferiority complex a feeling of inferiority that is largely unconscious with its roots in childhood
compensation making up for one's real or imagined deficiencies
all neu-freudians have one thing in common with freud deal with unconscious
humanistic perspective on personality personality is driven by need to adapt, learn, grow, and excel. mental disorders arise from unhealthy situations
abraham maslow theory on selc-actualizing person and the hierarchy of needs
self actualizing personalities healthy individuals who have met their basic needs and are free to be creative and fulfill their potentialities
carl rogers person-centered perspective. people are basically good and have self-actualization tendencies. unless held back by environment. environment needs to let the individual be genuine, it needs to accept the individual, and provide empathy for the individual
fully functioning person carl roger's term for a healthy self-actualizing individual who has a self-concept that is both positive and congruent with reality
trait perspective characterstics, behaviors, conscious motives. type a-intense. type b-relaxed
gordon allport 3 kinds oof individual traits, central--basis of personality. secondary--preference and attitudes, and sometimes cardinal-single trait that defines you
traits stable personality characteristics that are presumed to exist within the individual and guide his or her thoughts and actions under various conditions
what's wrong with the trait perspective too general, not changeable, only snapshot of personality
bandura driven by expectations of how our actions might affect other people. collection of learned behaviors from observational learning
observational learning the process of learning enw responses by watching other's behavior
locus of control jullian rotter. individual's sense of where his or her life influences originate. people approach situations differently based on locus of control thus affected personality
internal locus believing you control your destiny
external locus believing outside factors control destiny
MMPI personality test that gives scores on ten important clinical traits
what are the big five personality factors/dimensions emotional stability. extraversion. openness. agreeableness. conscientiousness
temperament basic and pervasive personality dispositions that are apparent in early childhood and that establish the tempo and mood of the individual's behavior
individualism vs collectivism in euro-american culture the individual is stressed. pushed to establish unique identity and assume others are similiarly motivated. in asian-african culture collectivism and the family or unit is stressed. the individual is incomplete without its group
Created by: LittleD331
Popular Psychology sets




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