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Abnorm Psych 1

Abnormal Psych Chapter 1

Distress, Deviance, dysfunction, and danger What are the 4 Ds the define psychological abnormality?
an unusual pattern with which others have no right to interfere; behavior is deviant, but may not be distressful or dysfunctional What is eccentricity?
a sufferer, a trained, socially accepted healer, and a series of contacts between the healer and the sufferer According to Jerome Frank, all forms of therapy have 3 key features:
good, evil, magical Prehistoric societies viewed the human body and mind as a battleground between external forces of ___ & _____. They believed that all events around and within them resulted from the actions of _____ beings who controlled the world
Trephination Dating back to the Stone Age: an operation in which a stone instrument, or trephine, was used to cut away a circular section of the skull; used to treat severe abnorm behavior
Hallucinations and melancholia (extreme sadness and immobility) 2 things trephination was used for in the Stone Age:
exorcism In early societies, the treatment for abnormalities was often _______
Shaman A _____, or priest, might perform an exorcism by reciting prayers, pleading w/ evil spirits, insulting them, performing magic, making loud noises, or having the person ingest bitter drinks
Hippocrates (500 B.C.-500 A.D.) the father of modern medicine; taught that illnesses had a natural cause; saw abnormal behavior as a disease caused by internal phys. probs. (some brain disease), resulted in an imbalance of the 4 humors; shared by Plato and Aristotle
Humors According to Hippocrates, the 4 fluids that flow through the body: yellow bile, black bile, blood, and phlegm
The Middle Ages (500-1350 A.D.) During this time period, power of clergy increased greatly through Europe; church rejected scientific forms of investigation & controlled all edu.; behavior interpreted as conflict b/w good & evil/God & devil; deviant behavior seen as evidence of Satan
increased, mass madness, rid the body of the devil that possessed it During the Middle Ages, abnorm behav. _____; there were outbreaks of ____ _______, in which large #s of people shared absurd false beliefs & imaged sights/sounds; key to cure was to _________.
Tarantism form of mass madness in which groups of people would suddenly start to jump, dance, and go into convulsions; all were convinced they were bitten & possessed by a wolf spider and sought cure by performing the dance "tarantella"
Renaissance (1400-1700 A.D.) In this time period demon. views of abnorm. declined; some thought the mind was as susceptible to illness as the body was; care of people w/ mental disorders improved in beginn., but declined by mid-16th cent.; creation of asylums
Private homes/community residences could only house small % of those w/ severe mental disorders & medical hospitals were too few and too small; overcrowding Why did care improvements begin to fade by the mid 16th century?
Asylums Institutions whose primary purpose was to care for people w/ mental illness
Gheel in Belgium shrine devoted to the humane and loving treatment of people w/ mental disorders; people would go to shrine for psychic healing; local residents very welcoming; became a form of community mental health program
Bethlehem Hospital given to London by Henry VIII for confining the mentally ill; became popular tourist attraction; called "Bedlam" by the local people
Johann Weyer the founder of the modern study of psychopathlogy; first physician to specialize in mental illness; believed that the mind was as susceptible to illness as the body
Philippe Pinel In the 19th cent, argued that the patients were sick people whose illnesses should be treated w/ sympathy and kindness rather than chains and beatings; the chief physician at La Bicetre (an asylum for male patients)
free movement around the hospital grounds, replacement of dark dungeons w/ sunny, well-ventilated rooms, and offered support and advice Some of Pinel's asylum improvements included:
William Tuke In the 19th cent., brought reform 2 northern England founded the York Retreat, a rural estate where about 30 mental patients lived as guests in quiet country houses & were treated w/ a combination of rest, talk, prayer, and manual work; an English Quaker
Moral Treatment methods of Pinel & Tuke that emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful techniques
Benjamin Rush Physician at Penn. Hospital most responsible for the early spread of moral treatment in the US; the father of American psychiatry; developed humane treatments; required hospital to read/walk/talk w/ patients and hire intelligent & sensitive attendants
Dorothea Dix A Boston teacher; made humane care a public concern in the US; went from state legislatures to Congress speaking o/t horrors she had observed at asylums and called for reform; led to new laws and greater gov't funding and state hospitals
State Hospitals public mental hospitals intended to offer moral treatment
The speed by w/ which the movement spread: severe money and staffing shortages developed and recovery rates declined; assumption that all patients could be cured; prejudice against these "strange & dangerous" people which led to less donations/gov't funds Several factors that led to a reversal of the moral treatment movement at the end of the 1800s
Somatogenic perspective the view that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes
Psychogenic Perspective the view that the chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological
Emil Kraepelin helped the somatogenic perspective gain acceptance w/ a textbook arguing that phys. factors, such as fatigue, are responsible for mental dysfunction; developed the first modern system for classifying abnormal behavior
tooth extraction, tonsillectomy, hydrotherapy, and lobotomy 20th cent somatogenic techniques included
Friedrich Anton Mesmer Austrian physician who started a clinic in Paris; used mesmerism to treat patients (patients sit in dark room w/ music, he appears in colorful costume, touched troubled area of each patient's body w/ a special rod); like hypnotism
Hippolyte-Marie Bernheim & Ambroise-Auguste Liebault 2 physicians who should that hysterical disorders could be produced in otherwise normal people while they were under the influence of hypnosis; established that a mental process (hypnotic suggestion) could both cause and cure even a physical dysfunction
Josef Breuer discovered that his patients sometimes awoke free of hysterical symptoms after speaking candidly under hypnosis about past upsetting events; joined by Freud
Outpatient Therapy patients visit therapist in their office for sessions of approx. 1 hour and then go about their daily lives
Psychotropic Medications discovered in the 1950s, drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunction; included first antipsychotic , antidepressant, and antianxiety drugs
Deinstitutionalization release of patients from public mental hospitals; especially prevalent after the discovery of psychotropic medications
Outpatient, short-term _____ care is the primary mode of treatment for people with severe psychological disturbances and those w/ moderate probs.; when very disturbed people do need institutionalization, they are usually given _____ ______ hospitalization
Positive Psychology the study & encouragement of positive feelings such as optimism & happiness, positive traits like hard work & wisdom, positive abilities such as social skills, & group-directed virtues including generosity & tolerance
Prevention Programs Positive psychology has further energized _____ programs in the past few years, promoting that practitioners can help people best by promoting positive devel. and psychological awareness
Managed Care Program leading form of coverage; program in which the insurance company determines such key issues as which therapists its clients may choose, the cost of sessions, and the number of sessions for which a client may be reimbursed
the program can shorten therapy, unfairly favor treatments whose results are not always lasting, pose a special hardship for those w/ severe mental disorders, and put control of therapy into the hands of the insurance companies rather than the therapists Con's of the managed care program:
Parity Laws direct insurance companies to provide equal coverage for mental and medical problems
Correlational Method research procedure used to determine the co-relationship b/w variables; purpose: predicting and selecting behavior; Research tactics: Statistical correlations based on 2 or more variables
correlation coefficient, +1.00, -1.00, strength the _____ ______ can vary from +!.00 to -1.00; ____ represents a perfect positive correlation, ____reps. a perfect neg. correlation; the magnitude is the _______ of the correlation
measure variables, observe many participants, and apply statistical analyses, which puts them in a better position to generalize their correlations; can be replicated; statistically analyzed Pro's of the correlational method:
show relationship, but do not explain the relationship b/w variables Con's of the correlational method:
Descriptive Method purpose: observing and describing behavior; Research tactics: naturalistic observation, case studies, survey research, and psychological tests
Case study detailed description of one person's life and psychological problems; describes the person's history, present circumstances, and symptoms; may also speculate about why the probs developed and the person's treatment
can be a source of new ideas, may offer tentative support for a theory or challenge a theory's assumptions, may show the value of new therapeutic techniques, may offer opps to study unusual probs. that do not occur often enough to observe a large group Pro's of case studies
reported by biased observers, rely upon subjective evidence, provide little basis for generalization Limitations of Case Studies:
epidemiological studies, longitudinal studies 2 kinds of correlational research:
Epidemiological Studies reveal the incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a particular population; help researchers detect groups at risk for particular disorders
Incidence the number of new cases that emerge during a given period of time
Prevalence total number of new cases in the population during a given time period; both existing and new cases
Longitudinal Studies study that observes the same participants on many occasions over a long period of time
Experimental method Purpose: determining why behavior occurs; establishing cause and effect; Researcher Tactics: experiments manipulating the IV to note effects on the DV
control v. experimental group; random assignment; blind design; placebo therapy; double-blind design Tools for limiting confounding variable in experiments:
Quasi-experiments/mixed designs investigators do not randomly assign participants to control/experimental groups but instead make use of groups that already exist in the world at large; may use matched control participants
natural experiments nature itself manipulates the IV, and the experimenter observes the effects
Analogue Experiments researchers induce laboratory participants to behave in ways that seem to resemble real-life abnormal behavior and then conduct experiments on the participants in the hope of shedding light on the real-life abnormality
single-subject experimental design a single participant is observed both before and after the manipulation of an IV; Ex: ABAB/reversal design
Created by: mobrien606
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