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RT Chapter 31

Apnea of prematurity Congenital cardiac anomaly that consists of four defects; pulmonic stenosis, ventricular septal defect, mal position of the aortic so that it arises from the septal defect or the right ventricle, and right ventricular hypertrophy
Bronchiolitis Acute and often life-threatening infection of the upper airway, which causes severe obstruction secondary to supraglottic swelling; caused primarily by Haemophilus influenza, type B, and affecting mainly children under the age of 5 years.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) Vascular channel in the fetus that joins the pulmonary artery directly to the descending aorta; it normally closes after birth
Croup Inhalation of meconium by the fetus or newborn. It can block the air passages and cause failure of the lungs to expand.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) Autosomal recessive disease characterized by pancreatic insufficiency, abnormally thick secretions from the exocrine glands, and an increased concentration of sodium and chloride in the sweat glands; known in Europe as mucoviscidosis.
Ductus arteriosus Chronic respiratory disorder characterized by scarring of lung tissue, thickened pulmonary arterial walls, and mismatch between lung ventilation and perfusion. Often occurs in infants who have been dependent on long-term artificial pulmonary ventilation
Epiglottitis Acute infection of the lower respiratory tract causing expiratory wheezing, respiratory distress, inflammation, and obstruction of the bronchioles; bronchiolitis is usually caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Condition characterized by abnormal movement of stomach contents into the esophagus or mouth; the acid from the stomach may be aspirated into the lung and cause asthma-like symptoms
Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) Infectious disorder of the upper airway occurring chiefly in infants and children that normally results in subglottic swelling and obstruction
Nasal flaring Dilation of the alar nasi on inspiration; a early sign of a increase in ventilator demands and the work of breathing, especially in infants
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) Clinical syndrome seen in infants soon after birth and characterized by abnormally increased pulmonary vascular resistance
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) Condition of respiratory distress in newborns, usually due to inadequate surfactant production (because of immaturity)
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Leading cause of death in infants less than 1 year old in the United States. Commonly called crib death
Tetralogy of Fallot Disorder of preterm infants, probably of central nervous system origin, characteristized by frequent apnea pauses lasting longer than 20 seconds and often associated with cyanosis, pallor, hypotonia, or bradycardia
Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) Often called type II RDS, is the most common respiratory disorder of the term newborn and is most likely related to delayed clearance of fetal lung liquid
Transposition of the great arteries Congenital cardiac condition characterized by a anatomic abnormality in which the aorta arises from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery arises from the left ventricle
Created by: brianna_lynn