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Rad Pathology

Chapter 1

The study of disease: Pathology
________ is the bodies response to some form of injury. Disease
Injury may be ___________, __________, infectious, ___________ or _______________. Hereditary, Traumatic, Vascular, Metabolic
Disease will present itself by a set of characteristics known as __________ & _______. Signs & Symptoms
______________ is the determination of diseases. Diagnosis
_____________ is the prediction of the outcome. Prognosis
The study of causation of a pathologic process is ____________. Etiology
____________ is a disease caused by the doctor and treatment. Iatrogenic
If you get an infection in the hospital, it's termed a _____________ infection. Nosocomial
___________ _____________ is the initial response of body tissue to local injury. Acute Inflammation
Regardless of whether the injury is ___________ _________, ______________ ____________ or ______________ substances there are four events that occur sequentially. Penetrating Trauma, Infectious Organisms, or Chemical Substances
The 1st event that occurs as a response to disease: Alteration in blood flow and vascular permeability
An increase in blood flow to the injury site is ______________. Hyperemia
The 1st response to disease will cause __________ and ____________ to become permeable allowing __________-rich __________ across vessel walls. Venules; Capillaries; Protein-rich; Plasma
What is the 2nd event in the response to disease? White blood cells migrate to the injury site
What is the 3rd event that happens in the response to disease? Digestion of dead cells and tissues
The 3rd event is called: Phagocytosis
The 4th event is called __________ which is the removal of necrotic debris and bacteria. Repair
________________ microorganisms produce pus. Give 2 examples: Pyogenic; Staphylococuss & Streptococuss
What is a localized, usually encapsulated collection of pus? Abscess
A tumorlike mass of tissue caused by a chronic inflammatory process: Give an example: Granuloma; Tuberculosis
_____________ is bacteria in the blood. What makes this condition very dangerous? Bacteremia; Because it can travel and invade other organs and tissues
__________ is an abnormal amount of fluid in tissue spaces or body cavities. Edema
Generalized edema (________) becomes __________ and can produce swelling in tissues throughout the body. Anasarca; Systemic
____________ is a lack of blood supply to an organ or part of an organ causing the organ's cells and tissues to be deprived of oxygen and nutrients. Ischemia
What kind of vessels can sometimes reroute blood supply in the event of ischemia? Collateral Vessels
What kind of occlusions are less likely to cause tissue death? Slowly developing occlusions
Cells of the _________ system and ________ muscle cells will undergo irreversible damage if deprived of their blood supply for ____to_____ minutes. Nervous System; Myocardial Muscle cells; 3 to 5 minutes
An ________ is a localized area of ischemic necrosis within a tissue or organ caused by occlusion of either _______ blood supply or __________ drainage. Infarct; Arterial supply; Venous drainage
This type of occlusion would be caused by a blood clot: Thrombotic Occlusion
This type of occlusion is caused by blood clots, __________ or masses of ___________ or ______________ __________. Embolic Occlusion; plaque; bacteria or cancer cells
Some occlusions can be caused by twisting of loops of the bowel. This is termed ___________. Volvulus
____________ is a rupture of a blood vessel. Hemmorhage
A reduction in the size or number of cells in an organ or tissue with a corresponding decrease in function: Atrophy
An increase in size of cells of a tissue or organ in response to demand for increased function: Hypertrophy
Increases in the number of cells in a tissue or organ is termed ___________. Hyperplasia
An abnormal development of tissue which can be caused by chronic irritation or inflammation: Dysplasia
New and abnormal growth especially when the growth is uncontrolled and progressive: Neoplasia
Neoplasms are divided into 2 categories: Benign & Malignant
_________ neoplasms invade and destroy adjacent structures and spread to distant sites. This spreading is termed: Malignant; Metastasize
Most _________ tumors closely resemble the tissue of origin. Benign
Malignant neoplasms of epithelial cell origin are called _____________. Carcinomas
Carcinomas affect ____________ tissue, ______ and ___________ membranes lining body cavities. Epithelial; Skin; Mucous
Examples of benign tumors: (AACC FLP) Adenoma, Angioma, Chondroma, Cystadenoma, Fibroma, Lipoma, Papilloma
________________ refers to malignancies of glandular tissue such as breast, ________, __________ and cells lining the _____________ tract. Adenocarcinoma; Liver, Pancreas, Gastrointestinal
When tumors grow without form it is called either _______________ or ____________. Undifferentiated; Anaplastic
Highly malignant tumors arising from connective tissues: Sarcomas
Sarcomas are tumors arising in ___________, ___________ and __________. Sarcomas are ________ common than carcinomas and tend to spread ____________ rapidly. Bone, Muscle and Cartilage; Less common than carcinomas but spread more rapidly.
What is the major metastatic route of carcinomas especially of the _______ and ___________. Lung and Breast; Lymphatic spread
What determines the most appropriate therapy for malignant tumors? Staging
_____________ diseases are present at birth. Congenital
The diseases that pass from one generation to the next are _____________ diseases and are carried in the ___________ of each cell. Hereditary; Nucleus
True or False? Symptoms of Hereditary diseases will be present at birth. False
____________ is characterized by impairment of cellular immunity that results in recurrent opportunistic infections. AIDS: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
AIDS is caused by infection with _____________ known as HIV:____________ ___________ Virus. Retroviruses; Human Immunodeficiency Virus
The most prevalent inflammatory disease of the liver is ______________. Hepatitis
Most common causes of Hepatitis are __________ infections or reactions to _________ and _________. Viral; Drugs & toxins
4 viral types of Hepatitis: A,B,C,E
Hepatitis ____ is contracted by exposure to contaminated blood or blood products or through _________ _________. B; Sexual Contact
Health Care Workers are more susceptible to this virus: ____________ ___ Hepatitis B
Created by: foster1317