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Radiation Physics 1

QuestionAnswer
the study of matter and energy and their interactions physics
the study of composition, properties and behavior of matter/study of atoms and their interactions chemistry
what does CGS stand for centimeter, gram , second system of measurement
what does MKS stand for meter, kilogram, second system of measurement/also called SI(standard international)
how many centimeters in an inch 2.54
how many kilograms in a pound 2.2
distance traveled by light in 1/299,792,468 second meter
quantity of matter mass
a push or pull exerted on an object force
ability to work/force applied over distance energy
measurement of energy joule
energy in use kinetic energy
stored energy potential energy
rate of doing work power
measurement of power watt or kilowatt(amperage x voltage)
product of mass of an object x velocity momentum(kg x m/s)
speed measured in m/s velocity
how is acceleration and deceleration measured meters per second squared
measure or quantity of ionizations produced in air by x or gamma rays. what is the unit of measure *exposure *R(roentgen) *(SI)unit is Air Kerma and its measurement is the Gray
unit of electrical quantity coulomb
any type of patient dose is considered what absorbed dose
what is the measurement for absorbed dose RAD(radiation absorbed dose) *1 Gray(Gy) is = 100 RAD
measure of the rate at which energy is transferred from ionizing radiation to soft tissue *this is use to determine radiation weighting or quality factor Linear Energy Transfer(LET) measured in KeV/micrometer
KeV kiloelectronvolt
x and gamma rays have high or low LET? low (more penetrating than other forms of radiation)
Beta, Alpha and Neutron particles have high or low LET? High (less penetrating)
gives off most or all of its energy @ skin level and produces higher # of ionizations, and therefore have a high linear energy transfer particulate radiation
considered high speed particulate radiation Beta particles
effective @ treating lesions @ or near skin surface, due to its lack of penetrating power Neutron particles
man made radiation, comes from outside nucleus x radiation
naturally occurring radiation, comes from within nucleus and is more penetrating than xrays gamma radiation
personnel dose measurement of quantity and quality for radiation. what is the unit of measurement dose equivalent *unit of measure is REM *(SI) unit of measure is sV(sievert) *1 sV= 100 REM
how is REM calculated RAD(Gray) x weighting factor
rate of decay(break down)of radioactive material radioactivity
what is the unit of measure for radioactivity Curie(Ci) *SI unit of measure is Becquerel(Bq)
discovered radium in 1898 Marie Curie
discovered uranium in 1896 Henry becquerel
the time required for a radioactive material to breakdown until it reaches an energy that is half its original intensity of radiation Half Life
the time it take for the body to metabolize and give of a radioactive material Biological Half Life
anything that occupies space and has mass matter
three forms of matter solid, liquid , gas
released by chemical reaction chemical energy
energy produced by moving something(potential and kinetic) mechanical energy
movement of electrons or current electrical energy
heat/transferred by conduction(touching), convection(mechanical transfer from hot gas or liquid to another place) and radiation/measured in fahrenheit, celsius or kelvin thermal
xrays are a form of what kind of energy electromagnetic
contained within nucleus of an atom nuclear
what forms of radiation are considered non ionizing radiation radio waves, microwaves, ingrared, and visible light
what are the ionizing forms of radiation on the electromagnetic spectrum ultraviolet, xray, gamma
decelerating or braking radiation;produced with low kVp,e- decelerates as it approaches an atom, it interacts with an outer shell electron,not enough energy to overcome k shell binding energy and changes direction, loses energy in form of a wavelength bremsstrahlung radiation
makes up 10% of xray beam with higher kVp, e- posses enough energy of overcome the k shell binding energy of 69, causing the release of one electron and causing e- cascading characteristic radiation
for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction Newtons Law
property of matter that acts to resist a change in its state of motion (if something is moving in one direction, it would prefer to continue moving in that direction) inertia
matter and energy can not be created nor destroyed, but changed from one form to another Law of Conservation of Energy & Matter
breaking something apart or studying it analysis
putting your data together to form a conclusion synthesis
plan experiment, perform experiment, collect and analyze data and put it together to form your conclusion Scientific Method
a proposed explanation or educated guess hypothesis
a hypothesis that has been proven using scientific method Scientific Law
smallest particle that has all the properties of an element atom
substance that cant be broken down any further without changing its chemical properties element
elements assigned to these, in periodic table, have similar properties. How many are there *groups or families *8
elements assigned to these, in a periodic table, have the same # of electron shells but different chemical properties. How many are there *periods *7
what is the formula for the number of electrons in a shell 2n²(n= shell #)
# of protons in a nucleus(= to # of electrons) atomic #(z#)
# of protons and neutrons in a nucleus atomic mass(a#)
what are some causes of ionization *exposure of matter to x or gamma *exposure of matter to stream of e- *spontaneous breakdown of radioactive nuclides *physical and biological half life *exposure of certain elements to light
two elements with the same atomic # but different atomic mass isotope
states that an atom with 8 electrons in its outermost shell, cant chemically bind Octet Rule
an element that cant chemically combine w/ anything else is what kind of element inert element
beta particles penetrate how deep into skin 5 cm
determines chemical binding ability of an atom valence
covalent bonding share e-
ionic bonds attract and bind atoms together
electrically neutral group of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by very strong chemical bonds molecule
pure chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemical elements that can be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions compound
a biological entity substance
Created by: bigad1982